The political sytem of Great Britain – maturitní otázka (2)

angličtina

 

Otázka: The political sytem of Great Britain

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Michaela

 

 

Great Britain – political system

Democracy governed within the framework of constitutional monarchy

  • This means that the official head of state is the monarch, but his or her powers are limited by the constitution
  • The British system of government is the oldest parliamentary democracy in Europe

Britain is the member of nearly all important international organisations – UN,EU, NATO and OECD

Branches of political system

  • executive – the government
  • legislative – Parliament and the Queen
  • judicial – the courts

 

Official Head of State is the Queen Elizabeth II.

  • She had four descendants – Charles – Prince of Wales, Andrew, Edward and Anne
  • husband – Duke of Edinburgh and a sister – Margaret
  • The heir of the throne is William
  • became Queen in 1952
  • can only reign with a support of Parliament – symbolic head
  • regular meetings with the Prime minister and she is informed about Cabinet decisions
  • seat in Buckingham Palace, Windsor castle – weekend house+state visites
  • the Head of Commonwealth (a group of former and present-day British colonies)
  • Duties
    • – to represent state
    • -performs social and ceremonial functions
    • – appoint all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister and judges
    • – visiting foreign countries
    • – holding receptions, recieves diplomats
    • -declares war and peace
    • – ratifies and makes treaties
    • -confer honours
    • – summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament
    • – grants or refuses Royal assent to bills
  • Powers
    • -head of the executive and judiciary
    • – head of the Church of England
    • – command-in-chief of all armed forces
  • Ceremonies
    • – State opening – every year opens a parl.session – in May
    • – queen’s speech from the Throne in the House of Lords
    • -Garter service
    • -Trooping the colour – on official Queen’s birthday

 

the Parliament

  • the supreme law-making body in the country
  • seat in Westminster Palace
  • two chambers – the House of Lords and the House of Commons
  • functions
    • -law-making
    • -proposals for new bills (laws)
    • -life of the Parliament – two sessions
    • -each session lasts a year
    • – final session terminated by dissolution
    • – All the pariliamentary proceedings are public, they are broadcasted on TV or radio

 

House of Lords

  • -older – formed in 11th century
  • -members are not elected, appointed by the Queen, about 1200
  • -members consist of hereditary peers, life peers(Lords Temporal), 24 bishops and 2 archbishops (Lords Spiritual)
  • – hereditary peers inherit their post from generation to generation
  • – life peers become peers when they do something important for the state
  • -not involved in matters of taxation and finance
  • -lord Speaker – attends and speaks at ceremonial occasions
  • – The leader is called Lord Chancellor

 

House of Commons

  • -originated in 13th century
  • – contains 650 members – They are elected – every 5 years
  • – each MP represents a definite part of a county
  • – Eighteen is the minimum voting age; candidates for election must be over 21
  • – New bills are introduced and debated – law making authority
  • – A bill (a proposal of a new law) must pass through the Houses and then is sent to the Queen for Royal Assent
  • the speaker
    • -elected
    • – The chief of the House
    • – maintains order in the House

 

The executive

  • – political parties – Conservative and Labour, liberal democrats
  • – The party, which wins the majority of seats, forms the Government and its leader is appointed by the Queen as the Prime Minister
  • – head of the Government
  • -re-elected every 5 years
  • -selects all remaining ministers
  • – David Cameron – conservative party
  • – Cabinet is the executive organ of government and meets weekly at 10 Downing street  ( where all the British Prime Ministers have lived)  to decide on major government questions
  • – The second party becomes  Opposition and forms the Shadow-Cabinet

 

The judiciary

  • -indepent of the executive and the legislative
  • -Supreme court of the UK

 

The United Kingdom constitution is unwritten

  • – based on agreement, tradition and common law.
  • – set of laws, traditions and customs

 

British national flag is called “Union Jack”

  • – symbolises the Union of England, Scotland and Ireland
  • – dates back from 1801
  • – The flag is made up of the crosses of the patron saints of England, Ireland and Scotland

 

National anthem is “God Save The Queen”

 

representative = představitel





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