The political sytem of Great Britain – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)

 

Otázka: The political sytem of Great Britain

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Michaela

 

 

 

 

Great Britain – political system

  • Democracy governed within the framework of constitutional monarchy
    – This means that the official head of state is the monarch, but his or her powers are limited by the constitution
    – The British system of government is the oldest parliamentary democracy in Europe
  • Britain is the member of nearly all important international organisations – UN,EU, NATO and OECD
  • branches of political system
    -executive – the government
    -legislative – Parliament and the Queen
    -judicial – the courts

 

  • official Head of State is the Queen Elizabeth II.
    – She had four descendants – Charles – Prince of Wales, Andrew, Edward and Anne
    – husband – Duke of Edinburgh and a sister – Margaret
    – The heir of the throne is William
    – became Queen in 1952
    – can only reign with a support of Parliament – symbolic head
    – regular meetings with the Prime minister and she is informed about Cabinet decisions
    -seat in Buckingham Palace, Windsor castle – weekend house+state visites
    – the Head of Commonwealth (a group of former and present-day British colonies)
    duties
    – to represent state
    -performs social and ceremonial functions
    – appoint all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister and judges
    – visiting foreign countries
    – holding receptions, recieves diplomats
    -declares war and peace
    – ratifies and makes treaties
    -confer honours
    – summons, prorogues and dissolves Parliament
    – grants or refuses Royal assent to bills
    powers
    -head of the executive and judiciary
    – head of the Church of England
    – command-in-chief of all armed forces
    ceremonies
    – State opening – every year opens a parl.session – in May
    – queen’s speech from the Throne in the House of Lords
    -Garter service
    -Trooping the colour – on official Queen’s birthday

 

  • the Parliament
    – the supreme law-making body in the country
    -seat in Westminster Palace
    – two chambers – the House of Lords and the House of Commons
    functions
    -law-making
    -proposals for new bills (laws)
    -life of the Parliament – two sessions
    -each session lasts a year
    – final session terminated by dissolution
    – All the pariliamentary proceedings are public, they are broadcasted on TV or radio

 

  • House of Lords
    -older – formed in 11th century
    -members are not elected, appointed by the Queen, about 1200
    -members consist of hereditary peers, life peers(Lords Temporal), 24 bishops and 2 archbishops (Lords Spiritual)
    – hereditary peers inherit their post from generation to generation
    – life peers become peers when they do something important for the state
    -not involved in matters of taxation and finance
    -lord Speaker – attends and speaks at ceremonial occasions
    – The leader is called Lord Chancellor

 

  • House of Commons
    -originated in 13th century
    – contains 650 members – They are elected – every 5 years
    – each MP represents a definite part of a county
    – Eighteen is the minimum voting age; candidates for election must be over 21
    – New bills are introduced and debated – law making authority
    – A bill (a proposal of a new law) must pass through the Houses and then is sent to the Queen for Royal Assent
    the speaker
    -elected
    -. The chief of the House
    – maintains order in the House

 

  • The executive
    – political parties – Conservative and Labour, liberal democrats
    – The party, which wins the majority of seats, forms the Government and its leader is appointed by the Queen as the Prime Minister
    – head of the Government
    -re-elected every 5 years
    -selects all remaining ministers
    – David Cameron – conservative party
    – Cabinet is the executive organ of government and meets weekly at 10 Downing street  ( where all the British Prime Ministers have lived)  to decide on major government questions
    – The second party becomes  Opposition and forms the Shadow-Cabinet

 

  • The judiciary
    -indepent of the executive and the legislative
    -Supreme court of the UK
  • The United Kingdom constitution is unwritten
    – based on agreement, tradition and common law.
    – set of laws, traditions and customs
  • British national flag is called “Union Jack”
    – symbolises the Union of England, Scotland and Ireland
    – dates back from 1801
    – The flag is made up of the crosses of the patron saints of England, Ireland and Scotland
  • National anthem is “God Save The Queen”

 

representative = představitel






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