Washington, D.C. – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (5)

 

Otázka: Great Britain

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Athalka

 

 

 

 

Introduction

  • The capital of the USA
  • DC = District of Columbia – Columbus
  • Centers of all three branches – Congress, Supreme Court, President are based in here
  • Population more than 600 000 residents
  • under exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress – not part of any state
  • Voting rights:  nonvoting delegate in the House of Representatives, can vote in some situations, no representation in the Senate, 3 electoral votes for president elections

 

History

Founded in 1790, tactical position – there were differences between the north and the south and Washington had to be in the middle, also the two cities nearby were a source of goods shipping

The layout of the city was initially a square measuring 10 miles (16 km)

Plan of the city designed by Pierre Charles L’Enfant – broad roads, National Mall, federal buildings, but the plans were not followed until 100 years later

Number of conflicts

  • Firstly the land donated by Virginia had to be returned – southern state was afraid that the slave trade in Washington would be prohibited – which happened 9 months earlier than in the whole USA
  • Civil war damaged the city including white house, the only spared government building was the home of commandant of the marines in Marine Barracks

Development of the city

  • 1870 – Growth of population to 132000 residents
  • 1900 – modernizing the city – broad roads, monuments, federal buildings
  • Washington consists of Maryland donated part only

Nowadays metropolitan multicultural city that is still growing

Cityscape

  • Main architect Pierre Charles L’Enfant – plans not followed until 1900
  • Streets set out in a grid pattern  East – West: named with letters

North – South: named with numbers

  • divided into four quadrants that meet by the US Capitol building (NW, NE, SW, SE)
  • Skyline is low by law – buildings not taller than the adjacent (přilehlý) street + 6m

 

Population

  • more than 50% black, 38% white, 8% Hispanic, Asian, Mix, Other

 

Sightseeing

The National Mall – two-mile grassy open field bound by the U.S. Capitol to the east and the Washington Monument to the west – was already designed in the plans in 19th century

U.S Capitol Building – meeting place for the US congress – Senate and House of Representatives, center of Washington on the map

Lincoln Memorial – Memorial of the 16th president of the USA

Washington Monument – Built in honor of G. Washington, Tallest structure made of stone

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial – 3 parts – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, Vietnam Women’s Memorial, The Three Soldiers statue

Korean War Veterans Memorial – Freedom is not free

The Jefferson Memorial – 3rd president, wrote the Declaration of Independence

The Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial – president from 1933 – 1945, the memorial includes also the first lady

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial – Leader of the African American Civil Rights Movement, Speech “I have a Dream” in Washington

The White House – the official residence of presidents since 1800

The National Archives – the official library where the records of the three branches of the U.S. government are kept and preserved. The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights are on display here.






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