LANGUAGE: Official language none,but national language : English.
CURRENCY: Australian dollar=100 cents
FLAG: The Union Jack flag with five stars that represent the costellation of the Southern Cross and a large seven-pointed star for six states and one territory.
HEAD OF STATE: Queen of the United Kingdom,who is also queen of Australia: in practise the Governon General performs all functions in the Queens ´absence.
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT: Prime Minister
GEOGRAPHY: Australia is the smallest continent and the biggest island in the world.
It is situated between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. There are two great deserts in Australia: the Great Sandy Desert and the Great Victoria Desert. They are red,orange and brown,and strange rocks can be found there. Ayers Rock,the largest piece of rock in the world,is the most famous of them. It is335 metreshigh. Australia has two big rivers,the Murray and the Darling, and three great lakes: Lake Eyre,Lake Torrens and Lake Gairdner.
The highest mountain is Mount Kosciusko discovered by a Polish scientist in the Australian Alps.
CLIMATE: Australia has a many different kind of climate. Tropical in the north, continental in the interior, subtropical of temperature in the rest of te continent. The south-east coast has pleasantly warm summer and mild winters. A long line of mountains in the east, known as the Great Dividing Range,divides the wet coast of estern Australia from the dry lads in the centre.
POLITICAL SYSTEM: Australia is independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations. The head of state is the British monarch represented by the Governon-General.
Australia is a federal state consisting of six states and two territories: Western Australia,Queensland,New South Wales,Victoria,South Australia,Tasmania,Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory. Each state has its own goverment and its own capital city. The state capitals are Perth,Brisbane,Sydney,Melbourne,Adelaide and Hobart.The official name is the Commonwealth of Australia : it was established in 1901.
POPULATION: Australia was discovered by the Dutch in the 17th century. Later Captain James Cook explored the coast of the island and in 1770 landed in Botany Bay near Sydney.
The settlement of Australia began here on January 25,1788, with the arrival of about 1,000 colonists from Britain: 750 of them were convicts.The day is called Australia Day and is now a public holiday. When the first white people from Europe came to Australia,about 300,000 dark-skinned Australian Aborigines were living there. They originally lived as hunters using boomerangs and other similar instruments for hunting. They understood and loved their land.But Europeans wanted it, and to get it they persecuted the Aborigines. Many of them died. They live in government reserves or missions, but also in some cities.
After coming to Australia, the first colonists usually bought some sheep hired a few men,found a place in the bush they liked,and built a house on ´´their land´´ .
ANZAC DAY– 25 April
– is probably Australia’s most important national occasion. It marks the anniversary of the first major military action fought by Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War. Many ceremonies, parades and other activities are held on ANZAC Day to remember the lives of those who participated or died in military action, particularly on the Gallipoli Peninsula in World War I. Dawn prayer or church services are a particularly important aspect of ANZAC Day. These represent the comradeship that the soldiers experienced as they rose each morning to prepare for another day of military action. After the services, gunfire breakfast (coffee with rum in it) is often served.
ECONOMY: Australia is rich country..mining: iron ore,oil,natural gas, and coal are found there.Australia is also rich in gold,silver and other precious metals.And it is the greates producer of wool in the world. Its second biggest export is wheat. Other exports are beef,mutton and minerals.Agriculture: sheep,cattle,wheat,wool,mik.