British history through the 18th century

angličtina

 

  Otázka: British history through the 18th century

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): sandris

 

 

ANCIENT BRITAIN

  • First inhabitants – settlers from Europe( 3500-3000 B.C. ) South of England + Stonehenge
  • farming, pottery, stone tools
  • 1000 B.C. Celts -> Britons, Gaels, Scots (worshipped many gods, human sacrifices, druids=priests, kept kettle, made pottery)
  • Roman invasion (43- 410 A.D.)
  • Captured the whole country and proclaimed as provincia Britannia
  • Brought new developments in agriculture, urbanization, industry and architecture
  • Hadrian´s Wall – preventing attacks from north (Pistish tribes) in 122 A.D.
  • Latin (but British language coexisted side by side), Londonium
  • 410 were Roman troops withdrawn

 

MIDDLE AGES

  • Anglo-Saxons (5th century)
  • The strongest Germanic tribe (from Germany, Denmark, Netherlands)
  • Gained control over three centuries
  • Angle-land = England
  • Augustine – first Archibishop of Cantebury (Led to Christianisation)
  • Power passed between seven great kingdoms – Northumbria, Mercia, Kent, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex and Wessex (heptarchy)
  • Viking Dane invasion = Norman takeover (beginning of the 9th century)
  • King Alfred the Great united the kingdoms and defended souther parts of country against
  • Norman attack – stop their influence; nevertheless th Danish wars
  • wipped out many villages and the peasants suffered most(feudalism)
  • Danish king Canute conquered England in 1016, however he had no successors
  • Edward the Confessor restored the native dynasty (his son is Harold)
  • 1066 Battle of Hastings: Willian the Conqueror(William of Normandy) defeated Harold
  • William funded feudalism and compiled the Doomsday book: a survey of the entire population and their lands for tax purposes
  • Plantagenet
  • Richard I. the Lion Heart – took a part in the Third Crusade, Holy land(from Egyptian ruler)
  • 1215 Magna Charta –John I. Lackland. stability and justice; limits on the king´s personal
  • powers; English Common Law, law as a source of justice
  • 1167 Foundation of Oxford and Cambridge
  • Edward I. wish – to win back power from barons summoned the first Parliaments of England
  • Treaty of Northampton – Independence of Scottland
  • The Hundred Years War – France won (battle of Kresčak with Czech king Jan Lucembursky)
  • The Black Death – killed about one third of population
  • Wars of the Roses
  • Between House of York(red) x House of Lancaster(white, led by Henry IV.)
  • Richard II. struggle between the party of the king and the party of Lancaster = the roots
  • Lasted nearly 85 years; ended Battle of Bosworth – Richard II. was killed and Henry Tudor became king as a Henry VII. and married Elizabeth of York = joined the two houses

 

EARLY MODERN BRITAIN

  • Tudors and the Protestant Reformation in England
  • Consolidation of royal power, the repression of any opposition and King´s great wealth
  • Henry VIII. – Pride, ambitious, brutal, seven wives; Estabilished the English church(independence: no atuhority of Pope)
  • Act of Supremacy – the King of England = the head of the church of England
  • 3 children Mary, Mary I. , Edward IV.(Jane Seymour)
  • Katharine of Aragon; Pope annulation of marriage, Anna Boleyn
  • Edward VI – The truth only from Bible, English chirch service – Book of Common Prayer
  • Mary I.(Bloody Mary) burned 300 Protestants at stake ; English church Roman and
  • Catholic again; King of Spain Phillip
  • Elizabeth I. – execution of Mary Stuart(legitimated heir to the English Crown)
    • Restored order and enforced Protestant religion by law
    • ruled by female diplomacy, unmarried(so as to keep peace)
    • Church Of England – independent and protestant
    • 1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Roman Catholic Spain)
  • Civil War / Constitutionalism x Absolutism
  • James I. & VI. (of England and Scotland) , New English translation of Bible
  • Charles I. – Great Fire of London – 1666– Absolutism, Church service and rules(England = Scotland) -> civil war
  • – Battle of Naseby Royalist army was defeated by Parliamentarian army
  • Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector, declared republic – Defeated Scottish army at Worcester
  • High Court of Justice – trial of King Charles I.
  • King James II. replaced by and Mary William of Orange; Catholicism, ruled without Parliament
  • 1689 – Bill of Rights: Constitutional monarchy; It lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament
  • Charles II. (grandson of James I.) signed the Peace of Breda

 

TREATY OF UNION

  • 1707 – Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
  • Unites England(including Wales) and Scotland
  • Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch of England and Scotland it was very unpopular between Scottish but they needed money continuous hostility towards France developing importane of the minority in the Parliament > opposition (preparing for the two party government systém)
  • Scottish sent 45 Members to the new House of Commons and 16 Lords
  • Scotland has had a separate legal system
  • Succession of the House of Hanover – George I.

 

JACOBITE RISING

  • Series of uprisings and rebellions
  • Wanted a return of James VII. of Scotland and II. of England and then his descendants
  • Wanted back House of Stuarts

 

BRITISH EMPIRE + Overseas expansion

  • Seven Year´s war
  • Fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa
  • Treaty of Paris
  • Get new France – Canada, Acadia, Newfoundland and Louisiana
  • Florida from Spain
  • Britain became the world´s dominant colonial power
  • 1775-1783 Lost the War of Independence
  • Shifted their attention to Asia, The Pacific and later Africa – Second British Empire
  • British East India Company
  • Traded in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea and opium
  • Privileged position to the British, special rights, trade monopolies
  • 1770 – James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia
  • Scientific voyage to South Pacific Ocean
  • Claimed it for Britain and named New South Wales
  • Estabilished of a penal settlement
  • Profitable exporters of wool and gold
  • Gold rushes in the colony of Victoria
  • Visited also New Zealand and claimed it for the British Crown
  • African slaves – sugar plantages
  • Profitable colonies
  • Mercantilism

 

WAR WITH NAPOLEONIC FRANCE

  • Started at the threshold of the 19th century ; because of the Britain´s position on the World´s stage
  • Napoleon wanted also to invade Britain itself as he had overrun European countries
  • French ports were blocked by Royal Navy
  • 1805 Trafalgar –Decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet – Horation Nelson
  • Napoleon was defeated in 1815 near Waterloo by a coalition of European armies
  • 1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland





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