British history – ancient britain – otázka z angličtiny


  Otázka: British history – ancient britain

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): sandris





First inhabitants – settlers from Europe( 3500-3000 B.C. ) South of England + Stonehenge
farming, pottery, stone tools
1000 B.C. Celts -> Britons, Gaels, Scots (worshipped many gods, human sacrifices, druids=priests, kept kettle, made pottery)
Roman invasion (43- 410 A.D.)
Captured the whole country and proclaimed as provincia Britannia
Brought new developments in agriculture, urbanization, industry and architecture
Hadrian´s Wall – preventing attacks from north (Pistish tribes) in 122 A.D.
Latin (but British language coexisted side by side), Londonium
410 were Roman troops withdrawn


Anglo-Saxons (5th century)
The strongest Germanic tribe (from Germany, Denmark, Netherlands)
Gained control over three centuries
Angle-land = England
Augustine – first Archibishop of Cantebury (Led to Christianisation)
Power passed between seven great kingdoms – Northumbria, Mercia, Kent, East Anglia, Essex, Sussex and Wessex (heptarchy)
Viking Dane invasion = Norman takeover (beginning of the 9th century)
King Alfred the Great united the kingdoms and defended souther parts of country against
Norman attack – stop their influence; nevertheless th Danish wars
wipped out many villages and the peasants suffered most(feudalism)
Danish king Canute conquered England in 1016, however he had no successors
Edward the Confessor restored the native dynasty (his son is Harold)
1066 Battle of Hastings: Willian the Conqueror(William of Normandy) defeated Harold
William funded feudalism and compiled the Doomsday book: a survey of the entire
population and their lands for tax purposes
Richard I. the Lion Heart – took a part in the Third Crusade, Holy land(from Egyptian ruler)
1215 Magna Charta –John I. Lackland. stability and justice; limits on the king´s personal
powers; English Common Law, law as a source of justice
1167 Foundation of Oxford and Cambridge
Edward I. wish – to win back power from barons summoned the first Parliaments of England
Treaty of Northampton – Independence of Scottland
The Hundred Years War – France won (battle of Kresčak with Czech king Jan Lucembursky)
The Black Death – killed about one third of population
Wars of the Roses
Between House of York(red) x House of Lancaster(white, led by Henry IV.)
Richard II. struggle between the party of the king and the party of Lancaster = the roots
Lasted nearly 85 years; ended Battle of Bosworth – Richard II. was killed and Henry Tudor became king as a Henry VII. and married Elizabeth of York = joined the two houses


Tudors and the Protestant Reformation in England
Consolidation of royal power, the repression of any opposition and King´s great wealth
Henry VIII. – Pride, ambitious, brutal, seven wives; Estabilished the English
church(independence: no atuhority of Pope)
Act of Supremacy – the King of England = the head of the church of England
3 children Mary, Mary I. , Edward IV.(Jane Seymour)
Katharine of Aragon; Pope annulation of marriage, Anna Boleyn
Edward VI – The truth only from Bible, English chirch service – Book of Common Prayer
Mary I.(Bloody Mary) burned 300 Protestants at stake ; English church Roman and
Catholic again; King of Spain Phillip
Elizabeth I. – execution of Mary Stuart(legitimated heir to the English Crown)
– Restored order and enforced Protestant religion by law
– ruled by female diplomacy, unmarried(so as to keep peace)
– Church Of England – independent and protestant
– 1588 – Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Roman Catholic Spain)
Civil War / Constitutionalism x Absolutism
James I. & VI. (of England and Scotland) , New English translation of Bible
Charles I. – Great Fire of London – 1666– Absolutism, Church service and rules(England =
Scotland) -> civil war
– Battle of Naseby Royalist army was defeated by Parliamentarian army
Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector, declared republic – Defeated Scottish army
at Worcester
High Court of Justice – trial of King Charles I.
King James II.
replaced by and Mary William of Orange; Catholicism, ruled without Parliament
1689 – Bill of Rights: Constitutional monarchy; It lays down limits on the powers of the crown and sets out the rights of Parliament and rules for freedom of speech in Parliament
Charles II. (grandson of James I.) signed the Peace of Breda


1707 – Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
Unites England(including Wales) and Scotland
Queen Anne, the last Stuart monarch of England and Scotland
it was very unpopular between Scottish but they needed money
continuous hostility towards France
developing importane of the minority in the Parliament > opposition (preparing for the two party government systém)
Scottish sent 45 Members to the new House of Commons and 16 Lords
Scotland has had a separate legal system
Succession of the House of Hanover – George I.


Series of uprisings and rebellions
Wanted a return of James VII. of Scotland and II. of England and then his descendants
Wanted back House of Stuarts


BRITISH EMPIRE + Overseas expansion
Seven Year´s war
Fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa
Treaty of Paris
Get new France – Canada, Acadia, Newfoundland and Louisiana
Florida from Spain
Britain became the world´s dominant colonial power
1775-1783 Lost the War of Independence
Shifted their attention to Asia, The Pacific and later Africa – Second British Empire
British East India Company
Traded in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea and opium
Privileged position to the British, special rights, trade monopolies
1770 – James Cook discovered the eastern coast of Australia
Scientific voyage to South Pacific Ocean
Claimed it for Britain and named New South Wales
Estabilished of a penal settlement
Profitable exporters of wool and gold
Gold rushes in the colony of Victoria
Visited also New Zealand and claimed it for the British Crown
African slaves – sugar plantages
Profitable colonies


Started at the threshold of the 19th century ; because of the Britain´s position on the World´s stage
Napoleon wanted also to invade Britain itself as he had overrun European countries
French ports were blocked by Royal Navy
1805 Trafalgar –Decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet – Horation Nelson
Napoleon was defeated in 1815 near Waterloo by a coalition of European armies
1801 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland


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