The Czech Republic – maturitní otázka z angličtiny [10]

english

 

Otázka: The Czech Republic

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): klaruncicka, zuzaroza

 

 

Population

  • Population: 10,3 million inhabitants
  • Minorities: the Ukrainians, the Vietnamese, the Poles, the Gypsies
  • Language: Czech
  • Currency: Czech crown
  • The capital: Prague
  • The country can be divided into three regions: Bohemia (in the west), Moravia (in the east) and Silesia (in the north-east)

 

Geography

  • It lies in the middle of Europe (state in Central Europe)
  • It occupies an area of 78 864 sq km
  • It borders on Slovakia in the east, on Poland in the north, on the Federal Republic of Germany in the north and in the west and on Austria in the south
  • Our state has a varied landscape. Bohemia is surrounded by a ring of mountains- the Šumava range, the Czech Forest, the Ore Mountains (Železné hory), the Jizerské Mountains, the Giant Mountains, and the Eagle Mountains
  • The Moravian Plain is protected on the West by the Bohemian- Moravian Highland, and on the North by the wooded mountainous ranges of the Jeseníky and Beskydy
  • The highest peak, Sněžka, is in the Giant Mountains. Roads, cable railways and chair lifts make the mountains accessible to tourists.
  • Bohemia and Moravia are separated by the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands
  • The highest mountain regions in Moravia: the Hrubý Jeseník (Praděd), the Moravian-Silesian Beskids (Lysá mountain)
  • The longest rivers: the Vltava (springs in the Šumava mountains and flows into the North Sea, the Elbe (springs in the Giant mountains and flows into the North Sea), the Morava ( springs in Kralicky Sneznik and flows into the Danube and then into the Black Sea)
  • Dams on the Vltava river: Lipno, Orlík, Slapy
  • There are only a few natural lakes in the Czech Republic (the largest natural lake- Černé Lake), Southern Bohemia has many artificial lakes which date from the 16th century (the largest artificial lake is Rožmberk).
  • Throughout the country there are number of mineral springs, around many of which spas have developed.
  • Primeval forest – Boubín, Žákova hora
  • The scenery of the Czech Republic is varied: there are plains, hills, and valleys
  • Tourist attraction
    • The Bohemian Paradise and Bohemian Switzerland
    • There are several karst regions too, with remarkable caves
    • In the Moravian Karst there is the well-known Macocha Abyss and the underground river Punkva
    • All these areas and many others with beautiful scenery are protected: they are nature reserves or national parks.

 

Weather

  • The climate is mostly continental, the warmest area being in South Moravia
  • Four seasons, warm summers and cold Winter

 

Agriculture

  • It is developed enough to feed the population and be able to export its product too.Wheat, maize, sugar-beet, grapes, potatoes, hops, vegetables and fruit are grown
  • Animal production: cattle-breeding, pig breeding, fish-breeding (especially carp-breeding – South Bohemia ponds) – has a long tradition

 

Industry/Economy

  • The Czech Republic is traditionally an industrial country.
  • Engineering (strojírenství) – most important part of our economy: machine tools (nářadí, nástroje), locomotives, trams, tractors, cars (Škoda)
  • Metalurgical industry
  • Chemical industry
  • Steel (ocel) industry
  • Tourism
  • Textile and glass industries have a long tradition
  • Food production
  • Electrical energy from coal and uranium

 

Raw materials (nerostné suroviny)

  • coal: black (Ostrava) and brown (in North Bohemia)
  • rich deposits of kaolin and clay (jíl) (for ceramics and glass industries)
  • stone and limestone (vápenec)for the building industry

 

Political system

  • parliamentary democracy
  • the Parliament consists of two houses:
    • the Chamber of Deputies (200 members) and
    • the Senate (81 members)
  • the head of state is the president (who is elected every 5years ) – appoints a prime minister
  • the Prime minister: the head of the government and appoints ministers
  • several political parties
  • Czech flag: red, white and blue
  • The Czech anthem: Kde domov můj

 

History

  • 14th century – king Charles IV – during his reign (Charles University – the first university in Central Europe was established in 1348, Old Town, St Vitus Cathedral)
  • religious leader Jan Hus – was burnt to death (1415), Hussite movement
  • Rudolf II (16th – 17th century) – Prague was centre of culture, magic, artists
  • on 28th October 1918 the country became independent – Czechoslovakia was formed, T.G. Masaryk became the first president
  • 1939-45 World War II
  • 1968 – occupation, Communism which lasted until the Velvet Revolution in 1989
  • in 1993 Czechoslovakia split into two independent countries

 

Typical  Czech products:

  • Pilsner Beer
  • Olomouc Stinky cheese
  • Znojmo gherkins
  • Moravian wines
  • Gingerbread from Pardubice





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