Education – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (6)

 

Otázka: Education

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): M

 

 

 

 

Czech system

– school attendance – compulsory (6-15 years)

– mostly state schools, a few private and church schools (school fees)

– free of charge (until 19)

– coeducational school

– no uniforms

– school year       – starts on 1st Spetember

– ends 30th June of the following year

– divided into two terms (September – January, Ferbuary – June)

– classes usually begin at 8 AM, there from 4 to 6 lessons in a row, followed by
lunch break (45 minutes), followed by afternoon classes (end at around 3 PM)

– breaks last from 5 to 10 minutes

– pupils and students are evaluated by marks from 1 to 5 into school report book

(excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, failure)

– at the end of each term students gain their school report with final marks from
subjects (compulsory, elective / optional)

– division of system of education into stages / grades:

 

pre-school – provided by crèches (up to 3 years of age), nursery schools, kindergartens (3-6)

 

primary schools (6-15)

– at the age og 15 – trasfer to secondary schools

– at the age of 11/13 – pupils can go to grammar school, but they have to pass entrance exams

 

secondary schools (15-19) – last 4 years

grammar schools – general, rather academic education, preparing students to universities

special schools – include technical colleges (specialized in building, chemistry, engineering etc.), business academies, agricultural schools, nursing schools, music and art schools

vocational schools – training for practical jobs

 

school-leaving examinations (grammar and specialized schools)

– recquired by all universities and colleges

– consist of 4 subjects (Czech, one foreign language, 2 optional) at grammar schools, 5 and more subjects at specialized schools

– are held in May, except writing an essay in Czech (April)

– oral part takes about 2 hours – students choose one of 25 to 30 topics (drawing a number), 15 min preparation, 15 min examination (speaking on the topic, solving given tasks)

– after passing received School-Leaving Certificate

 

terciary schools (universities and colleges) – 4-6 years

– secondary graduates can apply for as many universities as they want

– they usually have to pass entrance exams in subjects which is the university specialized in

– every large regional town in our country is a seat of university

– Charles University (Prague), Masaryk University (Brno), Palacký University (Olomouc), Purkyně University (Ústí), technical universities – ČVUT (Prague), VUT (Brno)

– variety of subjects (economics, foreign trade, architecture, law, journalism, the humanities, foreign languages, medicine, science, music, art, drama, engineering) at various schools

– students can enroll at courses (3-year course – Bachelor’s Degree,

5-year course – Master’s Degree)

 

Doctoral Degree – another few years of studying

– studying is finished by state examination – writing a thesis, receiving a diploma

full-time universities – bearing the expension of the tuition, paying for accomodation and board

hall of residence (dorm) – accomodation for student from distant places

scholarship – money for some students

 

Our school

– Masaryk Grammar School Vsetín lies in the centre of the town

– we can divide the school into 3 buildings:

– A – the newest building, school canteen

– B – the oldest building

– C – gymnasium, snack bar

– ground floor – gatehouse, a boiler room, a workshop, caretaker’s room

– other floors – long hallways with many doors leading to classrooms, teachers‘ offices,
laboratories, the head’s and deputy head’s offices, toilets, students‘ lockers

– decorated by pictures, flowers, notice-boards, cabinets

– information centre – school library, computers

 

classroom – large windows opposite the door, 2-3 rows school desks and chairs with
aisles between, blackboard and shelf with chalk, sponge and cloth, teachr’s desk,
bookcase, notice-board, few pictures, portrait of the president, wash-basin,
mirror, basket

– special classrooms – chemistry, biology, physics laboratory, music and art room

– assembly hall

 

lesson – after entering of a teacher, students stand up to greet him, the teacher makes
an entry in the class register (marks absent students) and then starts to teach
(explaining a new matter), teachers are supposed to follow the curriculum

– reasons of bad student performance – not paying attention, not doing homework
(copying in during the break), cutting classes, relying on one’s pretty face,
nervousness

– students can take part in after-school activities auch as singing in a choir, drama
club, sports club, film club, photographic club

– ski and waterman’s courses, excursion to Prague, school ball

– over 800 students, 60 teachers

 

British system

– diversity of types of schools

– most of state schools – administration is done by local education authorities

(LEAs), not by central government

– most of coeducational schools, but several single-sex schools

– compulsory (5-16)

 

pre-school – nursery schools, playgroups (private, not for everybody)

 

primary schools (5-11)

infant schools (5-7)

junior schools (7-11)

 

secondary schools (11-16)

– mostly comprehensive schools – children of all abilities

grammar school – accept only students who pass the examination eleven-plus

– at the age of 16 – national examinations called GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary Education) – can be passed or failed, number of subjects      depends on students

 

sixth formers – students who want to continue studying

do re-sits – do GCSEs again (only failed subjects)

– A level courses (Advanced level) – 2, 3, 4 subjects (2 years), preparation for

 

A level examination (at the age of 18) – similar to GCSEs but more difficult

– good grades will qualify students for entrance to universities or
improve their job prospects

– not all school have sixth form, there are also some special sixth form colleges

public schools – private

– name from Middle Age – there was only clerical education,

public schools provided education to all children (for fees), not only priests

– boarding schools – students are accomodated here

– talented and able students (a few) without fees

– Eton, Harrow

church schools (state and private)

 

terciary schools

universities (Oxford, Cambridge)

polytechnics – similar to a university, but more job-related courses

– to study there it’s nessesary to pass A level examination

– undergraduate degrees – after 3-year studying

– BA – Bachelor of Arts (the humanities)

– BSc – Bachelor of Science

– BEd – Bachelor of Education

– postgraduate degrees – after 5 or 7-years studying

– MSc – Master of Science

– MA – Master of Arts

– PhD (DPhil) – Doctor of Philosophy

– DSc – Doctor of Science

– the school year is divided into 3 terms (autumn, spring, summer)

– broken by hlaf term holiday (one week)

– holidays – Christmas (3 weeks), Easter (2 weeks), summer (2 months)

– lessons start usually at 9 AM, finish at 3:30 PM

– lunch – mostly packed meal provided by parents, but also in school canteens

uniforms (until 16 – then it depends on school)

– a blouse or shirt, a tie, a sweatshirt with the college logo

 

American system

– no uniform system of education for the whole country

– federal government has no control over administration ar curriculum

– each state – own system of education

– majority of schools are state (free of charge)

– some private schools (supported by church)

– main aim – education of masses

– marks – A, B, C, D, F

pre-school – nersery schools, kinderkartens (5-6)

– private

 

elementary schools (6-12) – 6 grades

 

secondary schools (12-18) – comprehensive, coeducational

junior high school (12-15)

senior high school (15-18)

  1. freshman
  2. sophomore
  3. junior
  4. senior

– same timetable everyday

– The Scholastic Aplitude Test (SAT) – at final year of high school

– national college entrance examination (Maths, English)

– results decide about acceptance of students to colleges, universities

 

higher education junior colleges (18-20)

 

universities – same system as in the UK, universities and colleges

– Harvard (the oldest one), Yale, Princeton, Columbia, George Washington






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