In England compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called playgroup. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old. There are 2 types of school, the private schools where you have to pay an expensive tuition fee and state schools that are free. There are three terms autumn, spring and summer with a couple of holiday. In Britain in primary and secondary schools uniforms are common. Boys’ uniforms often consist of dark trousers and light-coloured shirt and tie and girls’ uniforms typically consist of a dress or a blouse worn mostly with a dark skirt. Exams in Great Britain are marked in letters from A(very good) to E(bad).
Primary school is divided into two cycles .In Infant schoolchildren learn to read and write and the basics of maths. At the age of 7 pupils continue at junior school and they learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, also a foreign language. At the age of 11 years they move to secondary school. There are many types of secondary schools..for example grammar schools, secondary modern schools, secondary technical schools and comprehensive schools. Between the ages 14 and 16 pupils study for their GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary education). At the age of 16 pupils can leave school or stay for another two years and prepare for GCE (General Certificate of Education) examination at Advanced level (A-level). These are used as entrance qualifications for university and other types of higher education. Many students decide to leave school at the age of 16 and go to a Further Education College, where young people learn a trade (řemeslo) as they work, for example cooking or hairdressing. The typical first degree offered at English universities is the bachelor’s degree, and usually lasts for three years. During a first degree students are known as undergraduates. After receiving their degree, a person is graduate and can continue with a master´s degree in science or arts.
The United States
Similar to other countries, little children start their education with kindergarten between the ages of five and six. They are divided into groups and spend their time playing. In the USA there isn’t a national system of education. Each of the 50 states has its own education system. Elementary school formally starts their compulsory education and covers five grades. Essential subjects include English, math and science. In the US they have also private and state schools. Students are graded on a system of A to F. There is no E grade.
In grade six students go to Junior High school and in the ninth grade they change to high school, which includes four grades. High school offers academic lessons as well as more vocational courses such as mechanics or computers. The basic leaving school qualification is usually the High School Diploma or General Education Diploma (GED). There is no national school-leaving examination but during the final year of high school, most students take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Result is very important when they want to university. The completion of high school is celebrated with a graduation ceremony, where students dress long gowns. There are more than 2000 universities and colleges including elite institutions such as Yale or Harvard, known as ,,Ivy League schools”. Bachelor’s degree is given to students after successful completion of four years study. It is also sometimes called undergraduate degree. After that students continue with their education for about two years to earn their Master´s degree. Sometimes they continue with studying to earn PhD or doctorate.
In Czech Republic is school compulsory from 6 to 15. Pupils can choose state school where the education is free or the private schools where parents have to pay expensive fee. In Czech Republic we have co-educational classes. It means that boys and girls are together in one class. And we have no uniforms.
Before school children can go in a nursery school, it is between 3-5 years or in a kindergarten and it is between 5-6 years. At the age of 6 pupils start to study at Primary school. Primary schools have 2 stages. Children in the first five grades are usually taught from one teacher and on the 2. stage they have for every subject another teacher, who is specialized in it. By law, the school-leaving age is 15. In the 5., 7., 9. class, children try to pass the entrance exams and continue their studies at a secondary schools. Students can enroll in grammar school, which lasts 4, 6 or 8 years, at the end they complete a school leaving exam, which is taken in 4 subject, Czech and foreign languages or math are compulsory and the other 2 are optional. Passing this exam is important for admission to the university. The students, who want to be train for various branches (odvětví)like chemistry, economics or art, can try the entrance exams on secondary technical schools, where most of the courses last 4 years and then you can apply for university. The last possibility is to enroll secondary vocational school to become a baker or hairdresser. For the talented, there are conservatories where you can study music or acting. All the secondary studies finish with a final school-leaving exam. At primary and secondary schools we have marks from 1(very good) to 5(bad).
In order to study at university, students have to pass entrance exams. The most popular subjects include humanities, law or medicine studied at Charles University in Prague or Masaryk University in Brno. The universities offer three-year-bachelor programs as well as five-year-master programs..
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