Otázka: English Speaking Countries
Přidal(a): Tereza Skácelíková
1) Ireland (called as Emerald isle)
Is an island situated in the Atlantic Ocean , separated from Great Britain by the Irish sea. It is divided into two major parts: Northern Ireland, which is a part of the United Kingdom and
The Republic of Ireland. The capital is Dublin. The Republic of Ireland is an independent country with its political system on democratic principle (similar to the system in The United States of America). The head of the country is president. The official languages are Irish and English (signs and names,titles are in Irish and English language). The currency is Euro.
It is a beautiful land of mountains, rivers, lakes, green fields, lowlands and many pastures for sheep. The longest river with many important lakes is the Shannon river. On this river are located many hydroelectric power stations. Ireland has a mild climate with frequent rains which are responsible for the green grass.
Ireland was originally inhabited by the Celts. In the 5th century St. Patrick brought Christianity and from that time, Irish missionaries spread the Christian religion all around Europe. In the 12th century came Normans from England. The country was devastated by famines and many people emigrated to the US.
The symbols of Ireland are the flag and the shamrock. The flag contains three stripes of three different colours. The orange represents Irish Protestants, green colour stands for Irish Catholics and their nationalism and the white colour which is in the middle symbolises the peace between them. The shamrock stands for Christianity, it symbolises the Holy Trinity (the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit).
People are very open and friendly, they are known for singing in the pubs and dancing. They usually meet in the afternoon and chat, sing and drink beer (Guinness) or whisky for which is Ireland very famous for. Although Irish (Gaelic) was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English. Ireland is a homeland of famous writers such as Jonathan Swift, Samuel Beckett or Oscar Wilde. Also, Irish music is known worldwide from traditional music to modern.
The most typical holiday is St. Patrick´s Day (March 17), which resembles St. Patric the patron saint of Ireland. The celebrations include parades, people wear funny costumes and green clothes, concerts, fireworks, drinking (green beer) and feasting. Today the holiday is celebrating worldwide and not only by Irish people.
Places of interest
Ireland’s most visited natural attraction are The Cliffs of Moher. They are the most famous and breathtaking part of Ireland’s west coastline. Trinity College is Ireland’s most prestigious college and although its rivals, it’s probably the best university in Ireland. St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Ireland’s largest church, is also one of the biggest tourist attractions in Dublin.
Australia is the smallest continent in the world. It is the only country that occupies the whole continent. It is situated between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Its official name is the Commonwealth of Australia and its capital is Canberra (it means a “meeting place”). It was inspired by Washinton D.C. and we can find there an artificial lake. Another big cities are Sydney (it is also the oldest, its typical sites are the Harbour Bridge and the Opera House, its shape stands for sailing boats), Perth or Melbourne. Australia is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It is a federal state with the Queen as the head of the state.
The original inhabitants were the Aborigines- they arrived from Asia about 40 thousand years ago. Many of them died during the colonization because Europeans didn´t consider them as “humans”. They are inventors of a boomerang. Today they live on the fringe of society, they are poor and some of them abandoned their traditions. Captain Abel Tasman landed on an island which was eventually named after him and today it’s known as “Tasmania”. Captain James Cook discovered the island, he landed in today´s Sydney. Australia was originally a colony where England deported prisoners, they were mainly men and that´s why England started a campaign to get more women to Australia. Between years 1850 and 1860, there was discovered gold.
The country is divided into 6 states and 2 territories. Australia is mostly covered by flat ĺands and a great part of the surface contain deserts- like the Great Victoria Desert. In Australia we can also find mountains such as the Australian Alps and the Great Diving Range or Urulu, which is the largest rock in the world, it changes color during the sunrise and sunset, it has a special meaning for the Aborigines. The highest mountain is Mount Kosciusko in the Australian Alps. Australia has many national parks and nature reservations. Many of Australian´s rivers are dry and filled with water only during the rainy season. The Great Barrier Reef is the world´s largest coral reef and most visited tourist attraction in Australia. The island is separated from the rest of the world, Australia has a lot of unique animals like kangaroo, koala, emu or dingo.
Australia has rich mineral resources, it exports a great variety of minerals and metals (such as silver, gold or iron) all over the world. Australia has about 18 million inhabitants and the majority are of British origin. There are big distances between the farms so they mostly communicate through radio, even schools. A helicopter is an important means of transport there because of them there are “flying doctors”.
Tasmania is an island south of Australia and it was named by its explorer. It is a home to a rare animal called Tasmanian devil, it is named like that, because of the scary sounds it makes.
3) Canada – the name came from Indian Canata which means village or community.
It is the second largest country in the world. Despite its big size, Canada has around 30 million inhabitants. The capital is Ottawa. The biggest city is Toronto. The country is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories. The biggest province is Quebec. It is an independent federal parliamentary system with the Queen Elizabeth II. as the head os the state. It is a member of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The official languages are English and French.
The original inhabitants came from Asia. The country was discovered by Vikings. In the 16th century, a large part was occupied by France- that´s why the French language. In the 18th century, it became an English colony.
Canada borders the USA to the south and Alaska to the north. It is surrounded by the Atlantic and the Pacific ocean. Canada is known for its beautiful nature and a country of lakes. The Great Lakes Region is the largest area of fresh water in the world. There we can find famous Niagara Falls, which lies on the border with the USA. (Canadians say that the view is better from their site than from the American) We can mention some big lakes such as Ontario or Great Slave Lake. The longest river is the Mackenzie, but Canadian´s most important river is the St Lawrence. It provides a seaway for ships to the Atlantic Ocean. Canda has large mountains areas such as the Rocky Mountains or Mackenzie Mountains, the highest peak is Mt. Logan. Canda also contains around 40 national parks, the most beautiful and also the oldest one is called Banff.
This land is very rich in minerals, natural resources, and raw materials. It produces wheat, leather, wood, and maple syrup.
The flag is divided into 3 parts, two are coloured red and the middle one is white with a maple leaf in the centre. Animals- moose, beaver, grizzly.
4) New Zealand
It consists of two large islands- the North Island and the South Island. The capital is Wellington in the North Island and another major city is Auckland. New Zealand is a modern country with a well-developed economy. The government structure is based on the British parliamentary system.
The country is hilly and picturesque with rocks, volcanoes, hot springs and geysers. The characteristics of the New Zealand are green forests and warm climate. In New Zealand, we can find unique plants and animals, which do not grow and do not live anywhere in the world. The typical animals are kiwis or brown emu.
The original inhabitants are Maoris. The island was discovered by a Dutch explorer Abel Tasman and later captain James Cook.
Film makers often use the countryside for making films, the Oscar-winning film Lord of the Rings was shot there. New Zealand was the first country in the world to give women the right to vote.
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