Otázka: Great Britain
Official name of Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United kingdom is a state located on the British isles. It is a part of Europe but separate from France by La Manche Channel. Great Britain has four parts. This parts are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Capitals of these four parts are Edinburgh in Scotland, Cardiff in Wales, Belfast in Northern Ireland and the capital for England and for all Great Britain too is LONDON. The other largest cities for example are Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham and Cambridge in England; Londonberry in Northern Ireland; Glasgow in Scotland and Smansea in Wales. The main symbol of UK is flag which is known as the British Union flag or the Union Jack. The flag is constructed from three crossed. This crossed show flags of three parts of UK – England, Scotland and Wales.
The weather in UK influenced by the Gulf Stream,so it´s warm in England but it rains fairly often. Temperature in Great Britain is in the range between 4°C in winter and 16°C in summer. Summer is the best season for tourists, because there isn´t really hot weather for travelling.
The Queen who govern in Great Britain for the longest time was Victoria the qeen, her government standing for sixty three years and seven months. The present qeen´s name is Elizabeth the second. Elizabeth´s heir of throne is prince Charles. The next heir of throne is son of princess Diana prince William.
The approximate population of Britain is sixty million peoples. In England is about fifty mil., In Scotland is about five million, in Wales is about two million and in Northern Ireland is about one million peoples.
The British Commonwealth of nations is a voluntary association of Great Britain and its former colonies of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. It was founded in 1931 and has 49 members. The Queen od Englan is the formal head in 17 dominions.
The Great Britain is a constitucional monarchy with Queen as the head of state. The British parliament is one of the oldest in the world. The head of government is the prime minister. The parliament consist of two houses: The House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The most interesting places in UK are:
Oxford and Cambridge are considered for the most interesting university towns, their universities are among the oldest in the world. In oxford there are 33colleges. Even if you are not a student, you can enjoy the old architecture of the colleges and their special atmosphere.
The next interesting place in UK is probably Nottingham and the nearby Sherwood Forest. This forest is known as the home of the legendary Robin Hood and you can see the exhibition on the legends at Nottingham Castle. There is the oldest pub in England.
In Salisbury is the beautiful mediavel cathedral. It was built eight hundred years ago. Some 15 kilometers from Salisbury is Stonehenge, perhaps the most interesting monument in the world. It´s consist of circle of big standing stones.
Stratford-Upon-Avon is the birthplace of William Shakespeare. You can visit the house where Shakespeare was born and the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. There are the old streets from Shakespeare´s time too. So if you don´t want to see the theatre you can go for a walk.
London is the capital city od the United Kingdom. There is about 7 million peoples. It is situated on the Thames. The London consist of three parts – the original and historical city, west end and east end. Really interesting places in the London are Houses of parliament, Big Ben, the tower of London and Tower Bridge. Tourists also come to London to see Buckingham palace, Trafalgar sqare, the London Eye or Greenwich. Really popular for shopping is Oxford street. And for relaxation, there are some parks like a Hyde park.
In England education is divided into four levels: nursery (3-4), primary education (5-11), secondary education (12-18) and tertiary education (18+). Education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16. Children start in the year they turn five.
The school year in England usually begins on the first of September. They are the autumn, spring and summer half-terms holidays in October, February and June respectively. Students also have two weeks over Christmas and five weeks from the end of july to the end of August.
All students must study English, maths and science from ages five to 16. The vast majority of secondary schools in Britain today are comprehensive and state-run This means the school does not select in advance what type of student can attend and education is free.
Assessment in the UK starts with the GCSE (general certificate of secondary education). These exams take place in year 11 (when students are 16 years old). If students have satisfactory grades they can then study for their A levels. Results from A levels are used to determine if students can qualify to get into univesities. Students pay for their university studies although there are ways of getting government support.
Over half of dwellings in Britain are owned by their occupies – the average Englishman prefers to own his house, however small. About a third is owned by public authorities and the reminder, mainly older houses, ale rented from private landlords.
About three quarters of all the dwelling in Britain are houses of four to six rooms, usually of two storeys, either semidetached (joined to anoher house on one side only) or terraced (joined to other houses on both sides). One eight are detached houses (standing by themselves) and the remaining eight are flats.
In central areas of towns some bigger houses had more floors, but even a house with four floors was usually the same pattern, with a basement for servants and the top rooms for the children. Houses standing alone in their own gronds were normally very large.
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