Hamlet, Prince of Denmark – W. Shakespeare



Téma: Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Malena Odložilíková


William Shakespeare

From many people’s points of view William Shakespeare is a famous British playwriter, who is known mainly for the great tragedies Romeo and Juliet, Othello, or Hamlet. However, his life does not seem as obvious as his plays, because he was very careful about his privacy, and he wanted to keep in secret.



William Shakespeare, who is sometimes called England’s national poet and the “Bard of Avon”, belongs to the Elizabethan age last about 45 years (1558 – 1603). To this era, at the turn of century with no wars or revolutions, are typical playwriters, theatres and peace in society. Despite the fact many people did not complete education, or they did not attend a university and that was the case of Shakespeare.

He was born and raised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford upon Avon. He has seven siblings but some of them did not live until adulthood, however it was not an exception among people in the 16. century. He graduated from grammar school and almost immediately married Anne Hathaway. Their wedding was a little bit in rush. There were not any special preparations, and they also skip some establishing, because Anne was pregnant. Six months after the wedding, she gave a birth to their first child – daughter Susanna. About two years after followed twins – son Hamnet and daughter Judith.

In 1592 Shakespeare started his theatre career in London. He worked hard, became successful actor, poet and playwriter. He founded his own company and in 1599 built The Globe. The Globe is a playhouse where audience could first see some of his plays. Reviews were positive and even more foreigners travelled to London. They just wanted to visit the theatre and saw one of the plays. Nevertheless “Nothing lasts forever” and in 1613 the theatre was destroyed by fire. Unfortunately, it was repaired a year ago. Few years before death he came back to his hometown, and he died on 23 April 1616.



Although he wrote most of his plays from 1590 to 1613, they reached fame after their translations to many other world languages in 18. century. Among translators in Czech come E. Saudek, J. V. Sládek, J. Vrchlický and M. Hilský.


He is most famous for writing plays. They are divided into four genres:

  • Tragedy – They are characterized by funny plots but bad ends. Tragedies are Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Anthony, and Cleopatra and also his masterpieces: Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth and King Lear.
  • Comedy – dark scenes, but good ends; Comedy of Errors, Two Gentlemen of Verona, Much Ado about nothing
  • Historical plays – themes from British history; Henry VII., Richard III.
  • Romance – Midsummer night’s dream


Hamlet, Prince Of Denmark

One of his masterpieces is called Hamlet, prince of Denmark. The story takes plays in Denmark after strange death of the king, Hamlet’s father. One night his ghost revealed to Hamlet and told him that he had been killed by his own brother, Hamlet’s uncle Claudius. Claudius didn’t wait a minute after king’s death and started to care about the free place in the head of Denmark and married Hamlet’s mother, the queen Gertrude. When Hamlet realised the situation, he experiences the feeling of betrayal and hatred and decided to avenge the father. He wanted to prove uncle’s guilt; therefore, he invited a group of acters and told them what they had to play. He succeeds because Claudius was upset and in Hamlet’s eyes proved that he was guilty. Hamlet decided to play a little game with his family and started to behave very strange. They were a little bit worried about him and on the other side Claudius wanted to get rid of him too. He used advantage of the situation and ordered Hamlet to travel to other country for a while. Tightly before he left, he had agreed on conversation with his mother in her room. However, things went wrong, and Hamlet killed Polonius, Polonius was king’s counsellor. Hamlet left but his love Ofelia went mad because of her dad’s death. She was extremely miserable, so she decided to committee suicide. When Hamlet came back to Denmark, he was challenged to a duel with Laertes, Ofelia’s brother. Nevertheless, Laertes was one hand with Claudius who wanted Hamlet’s death. Laertes used poisoned sword and the duel could start. From that point the action was very quick. Gertuda died on poisoning when she drunk from Hamlet’s glass. Laertes was hurt with his own sword by Hamlet. Claudius was killed by Hamlet and the prince of Denmark was hit with the deadly weapon too and died in the end.


The main idea of this tragedy is how can be people unstoppable in case of revenge, how they are able to do not take considerations on others and the fact that the desire for power is unlimited.



Besides the fact that he wrote plays, he also was an excellent poetry and loved writing sonnets. He was trying strictly follow the rules of Alighieri’s sonnets; therefore, sonnet must have had 14 lines: 3 group of 4 lines which is setting up a subject of the poem and the last 2 lines which resolved the problem. The topics were all emotions ranging from pain, death, happiness, and despair. His poems are usually written without as much creative language in iambic pentameter. His most famous poem – Sonnet 66. Shakespeare by its publication really confused people about his sexuality. He caused that a lot of new speculation appeared around his private life, because the sonnet is written for an young man with the feeling of desire, pleasure and emotions.



He was a visionary. His topic will be still actual, universal, and timeless. He wanted to attract reader’s or audience’s attention by simple messages for life.

Firstly, he totally refused stereotypes and normality for instance mother needn’t be loving. Secondly, he concentrated on emotional side of people life and tried to show all possible states of mind, conditions, and acts, which are people able to.

Finally, he believed you can influence your life partially. Many people may find message in here and try to change their supposed destiny like they want.

William Shakespeare influences the literature a lot and in very good way. He came up with new look at human’s experiencing and worldwide. His work is priceless, and everybody should appreciate it. He was totally unique.

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