Otázka: Holidays and Celebrations
1)The first inhabitans were Iberians. Then was bulit the Stonehenge 3000BC.
Stonehenge – it was beeing bulit during 1000years and people don´t know the real purpose(účel). It´s a mystery, because stones are from different part of the land. It might have been a sort of capital or a place of worshop to sacrifice(obětí)
Then the Celts arrived about 10th century. The Celts pushed the inhabitans into the west and into the North.
2)Romans are the most important. They invaded(napadli) the land. It was really positive for the country, because they brought(přinesli) civilisation. They were trained soldiers, so well organised. They established or build camps (latin castra) it remains a part of the names of towns. They also bulit roads->to link the camps. They named the land Britannia. They pushed the celts into the west and into the North. (they brought latin). Britain was organised as a province. They bulit Hadrian´s Wall to protect against war ,like people from the North.
3)The Anglo-Saxon period arrived about 5th century. They was germanic tribes(kmen). They brought their language=>germanic language. They pushed the inhabitans to the North and to the West. They named the land = Anglo-land. The Vikings arrived from Scandinavia about 9th century. They was raiders(lupiči), they brought some vocabulary (sister, knife, husband, steak, egg…)
4+5) There is another important period of Great Britain, it´s The Norman Conquest. Normans were invaded from France. These invasions drove the Celts into where is now Wales and Scotland, and they remained in Ireland.
The Battle of Hastings in 1066 changed the future of England when the English were defeated(poraženi)by a French army with leader William , Duke(vévoda)of Normandy. Harold, King of England, was killed and the Duke of Normandy became King William I. of England (=William Conqueror). They brought their language-french, so there are usually two words for one thing (chair x stool, stomach x belly). They brought feudalism. Before they lived in tribes and different organisations. King, barons, dukes, bishops, serfs=they didn´t get any money for their work…Land was divided among French knights.
6)Domesday Book 1086 – They surveyed(zpřehlednit) the land, they collacted all of the information about property.
7)English Language – was influenced(ovlivněn)by all the invaders(útočník)– is half germanic language (from Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian), half romans language (from the French, latin), there is salso Celtic origin Gaelic (Welsh, Scottish, Irish).
8)Richard I. = 2.thecentury,people called him the Lion Hearted. He spend most of the time fighting in abroad. He wanted mainly money from country, so he levied(vybírání) heavy taxes. After he was killed, his brother John became as king.
9)John Lackland was a despotic ruler, cruel and coward(zbabělec)
Robin Hood fought against John. He took from the rich and gave to the poor.
Magna Carta (1215) was a document, John was forced(nucený)to sign it. This document limited the power of the king. It gave more rights to barons. John was so unpopular,and it s reason,why was in Britain only one king John.
10)Hundred Years War = there are The English against The Frech. Reason: money, land, wealth, started: English King Edward III. =>he landed the Normandi and he clamed their land, victory: French ->had leader Joan of Arc = she was captured(chycena) by the French, she was sold to the English, she was burnt at the stake as a witch by the England. In the end they defected the English.
11)The Black Death = sort of plague (1349)(druh moru) – epidemic struck England->half of the population died=>so the feudalism declimed—(poklesl) and fewer people lot´s of land and they wanted demanden money.
12)Wars of Roses (1461 – 1485) is war between two families, which have two symbols roses. The House of York has a white rose and The House of Lancaster has a red rose. Reason of war was a struggle(boj) for the throne. So Elizabeth of York got married with Henry of Lancaster and they established The House of Tudors. They have got children. Trade grew = it is a great period od discoveries and voyages.(cestovani)
13)Henry VIII. (about 16th century) – he had six wives, he liked pleasures, he inherited great wealth, (wifes=divorced, beheaded, died, beheaded, divorced, survived).
14) Henry VIII. wanted to get divorced with his first wife so he asked the Pope(papež) – the had of the catholic church. He had great power, The Pope refused(odmítnto)so Henry established new church => The Church of England. It was desaster because he destroyed the symbols of Catholic Church. Monastics were burnt and monastic used to by the centre of education.
15)Elizabeth I. remained unmarried => she was called the Virgin Queen. She managed(udržovat)to keep peace. The British Empire was established, so we talk about Elizabethan Age.
Discovery: Francis Drake and Raleigh explored the coast of North America and they established the first colony Virginia.
16)The Hause of Stuart
James I. – Divine Right = means that the king was chosen by the God so only the God can judge him. He wanted to rule without Parliament =>all right for the king.
Guy Fawkes (1603 – 1625) wanted the blow up the parliament, he made a plot but he failed and he was executed. I tis comemorated every year = people make fireworks, the burn a small Guy Fawkes (kids).
Charles I. – the only British king who was executed for treason(velezrada), lot´s of difficulties, he wanted to rule without Parliament, higher taxes, he resoulted in disolving the Parliament->so started the civil war=>Parliment (Round heads, short hair) x The King Royalists (long hair like knights) =>The King was defeated
Oliver Cromwell established Republic the Commonwealth and call himself Lord the Protector.
17)Pilgrims Fathers (1620) was a group of people who left England, they went to America on the ship called Mayfloer (during the reign(panoval) of James I.) Reason: they were looking for religious freedom. The wanted to purify the church so they were called the Puritans
18)Queen Victoria (1837) is the symbol of satbility wealth and Power agriculture was replaced by industry=>new middle class, school were bulit => the time of morality. She was the first monarch who lived in Buckingham Palace. The British Empire reached its gratest importance. But on the other hand the colonial system was ending.
19)The British Commonwealth of Nations – a free association of equal(rovný) states under one head – was declared.
20)Queen Elizabeth II. of the House of Windsor became Queen and head of the royal familly following her father´s death. She married Princ Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Princ Philip is from the Danish and Greek royal families. She has three sons and one daughter. Her son Charles is the Princ of Wels. He got married to Diana and she died in the carcrush. They have two sons = Henry and William. William is expected to be a king. He got married to Cate and recently their son was born and he name George. Charles got married to Camilla Parker Bowles, but english people don´t like her.