History of Ireland and India – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

  Otázka: History of Ireland and India

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Markéta Novotná

 

 

 

 

Ireland

  • Early history
    • First settled about 100 thousand years ago
    • Around 300 BC the Celts came from mainland Europe
      • →important influence on Irish culture (myths language – Irish)
    • Early ChristianIreland
      • Following arrival of saint Patrick (430’s), Christianity took over the original pagan Celtic religion about 600 AD
        • → Early Christianity reflects in the culture as well (Celtic cross, monasteries etc.)
      • Christian scholars caused an improvement in crafts (like carving or metalwork)
    • The Viking era
      • During the 8th and 9th century, Viking tribes from Scandinavia started invading Ireland as well as settling down and mixing with Celtic population
      • They founded Dublin (among other cities)
    • Norman era
      • 12th century
      • Normans (tribe from Northern France – Normandy) took over England, Norman William crowned King of England
      • Norman called Strongbow became a king of Leicester (north of Ireland), king Henry II of England went to Ireland with fear of a Norman kingdom near England. However, he left Ireland as Lord of Ireland – from now on it would be the head of Ireland
    • Plantations and penal laws ( 17th century)
      • After King Henry VIII founded the Anglican church and made England protestant, he called himself Lord of Ireland
      • English king did his best to suppress Catholics in Ireland as much as possible. By Penal laws, he denied certain rights to Catholics (the clergy was outlawed, restricted amount of property etc.)
      • In 1778, the Catholics possessed only 5% of Irish land
    • Union with Great Britain
      • Irish people, partially inspired by the French Revolution, were trying to gain more independence on England. However, rebellion failed.
      • 1801 Act of Union – Ireland was united politically with the Britain.
    • The potato famine (1845-1847)
      • Since the discovery of America, potatoes became main source of food for almost half of Irish people. It also helped to lower infant mortality.
      • Then potato blight (a fungal disease) stroke, making potatoes uneatable. It caused a severe starvation, killing about 1 million of people. It also made about 500 thousand people emigrate, mainly to USA.
      • British policy demanded Ireland to export food, although there were people starving.
      • Famine walls – they served no purpose, only to create a possibility of a job.
    • Home rule
      • =self-government
      • Irish people were trying to achieve independence on Britain.
      • Home rule bill was passed in 1912, but unfortunately it wasn’t made a law yet, when the WWI started.
      • North of Ireland didn’t want to become independent; it would make them a protestant minority in catholic country. → Unionist Party
    • Easter rising 1916
      • Started by 2 groups of rebels, who were unwilling to wait until the war would be over. They were led by Padraig Pearse and James Connolly. Pearse read the Proclamation of the Republic and declared Irish republic independent on Britain.
      • The rising finished in the end of April with surrender of rebels.
      • This act of relatively small groups of radicals wouldn’t have had such a big impact, if the Britain didn’t react so cruelly and aggressively (many executions etc.).
      • By 1919 majority of Irish seats in House of Commons are held by member of the Sinn Féin. They gathered in Dublin, forming Irish Republic parliament.
    • War of independence (1919)
      • IRA – Irish republican army waged a guerrilla war against British forces
      • A key leader was Michael Collins.
      • December 21 – a treaty was signed by British and Irish authorities. Some independence was guaranteed and Ireland was split to two parts: Northern Ireland (Protestants) and the rest (catholic).
    • Civil war
      • A result of the treaty – there were pro-treaty forces (among them Collins) and anti-treaty forces.

 

India

  • First people came to Indian subcontinent about 75000 years ago,
  • Indus valley civilization spread on north-western part of Indian subcontinent (around Indus River) from 3300 – 1300 BC
    • The first major civilisation in south Asia
    • (Indian subcontinent includes Bangladesh and Pakistan)
    • Highly civilised, orderly, picture writing (undeciphered), developed engineering (e.g. drainage system)
    • Agriculture ( wheat, barley, peas) and cattle – (goats and sheep)
    • Began to decline around 1700BC
    • Ruins of 2 main cities uncovered – Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Aryan Invasion (1700-1300 BC)
    • Invaders came from Europe
    • They ruled in India for hundreds of years and set up small kingdoms (called rajas)
    • They combined their traditions with Dravidian religion and thus created modern Hinduism
    • Establishment of caste system
  • Vedic Age (1750-500BC)
    • Rigveda was written (in Sanskrit) – 10 books, hymns and invocations of the gods
    • Mahabharata and Ramayana – mixture of historical literature and legends, later made a sacred literature
  • Alexander the Great (327-326 BC)
    • Macedonian, led conquering forces across India, ruled briefly
  • Maurya Empire (322-185BC)
    • Chandragupta Maurya began the dynasty
    • His grandson Asoka ruled all of India, converted it to Buddhism (also spread to Burma, Ceylon, Siam, Tibet), religious tolerance, generosity, wisdom, after his death – disunity and war
  • Gupta Dynasty (320-467)
    • Reunited Northern India
    • Trade with: West, Burma, Indochina, Java, Sumatra
    • Buddhism and Hinduism spread out – cultural diffusion
  • Mughal Empire (1526-1858)
    • 12th century – Muslim invasion
    • 1500 kingdom in northern India established by central Asians – led by Mughals
    • Akbar (1556-1605) conquered central India
      • Efficient and strong government, religious tolerance, business and commerce encouraged
    • Architecture – forts, mosques, palaces, tombs, TajMahal built
    • In 17th century the empire crumpled into smaller kingdoms, English, French and Portuguese traders gained bigger influence
  • Colonial India
    • Seven year’s war – war in north America over control of India → British East India Company won
    • EIC obtained trading rights from the Mughal empire
    • How they conquered India
      • The British had superior weapons. Since the Mughal empire has fallen, India was divided by various cultures and languages, so it would be difficult to unite. On top of that, EIC played the princes against each other.
    • EIC tried to change India
      • Introducing western educational system and British legal system, converting Indians to Christianity, trying to end the caste system
      • India’s reaction: they resented British interference and felt discriminated against (they weren’t able to hold government posts)
    • →Rebellion
      • There was a growing nationalism in the 1800s
      • The Indian National Congress set up in 1885 (a political party, that later participated in the Indian Independence Movement) – it tried to represent all Indians

The Muslim League – other political party, Muslims were a minority in India

  • The Sepoy Rebellion (India’s first war of independence)
    • 1857-1858, sepoys (Indian soldiers) started a rebellion in northern part of India
    • It was suppressed by Britain, but as a consequence, the British government decided that India can’t be run by a company → queen Victoria becomes a empress of India
  • Hindu resistance against GB: Mohandas Gandhi fought for independence, his main attitude was based on nonviolence and tolerance, he greatly influenced number of people (e.g. Martin Luther King Jr.)
  • Muslim resistance: Muhammad Ali Jinnah (a lawyer, Politian and statesman) held several talks with Gandhi about united Hindu-Muslim state, but they failed as Jinah believed that Indian Muslims should have their own state
  • When WWII stroke, the Congress refused to help the GB, unless they would grant them an independence
    • GB did, the Muslim league cooperated with the GB and so they had a little bit bigger influence after the war
    • Indian independence in 1947!
  • Eventually , Jinnah persuaded the British that partition of India was the best choice

→ north-east and north-west area of India was mainly inhabited by Muslims → as it was separated from India, Pakistan was established

  • Even after Pakistan was separated, there was certain violence between Muslim and Hindus , especially in Kashmir, in which both groups lived, as a result, it was divided

 

Sources

http://www.livinginireland.ie/en/culture_society/a_brief_history_of_ireland/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Famine_%28Ireland%29

material from Are classes (from Mr. Raynolds)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_India

http://www.historyindia.org/index.php?content_id=27#28

http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/mainhist.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_independence_movement






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