Otázka: History of Our Country
- The so-called Great Moravian Empire (833–906 / 907) was established, the center was in the south Moravia.
- At the request of Prince Rastislav, two brothers from Thessaloniki (Greece) came to Moravia -Constantine (Cyril) and Methodius. They spread the Christian faith, created the oldest Slavic script, the so-called Glagolitic; into Old Slavonic, the first literary language of the Slavs, translated basic religious texts – Old Slavonic became a liturgical and literary language.
- The establishment of the first Czech state.
9th century – 1306
- The Přemyslids – the first important dynasty on the Czech throne, founding cities, coin reform (Přemysl Otakar II., Václav II.).
- However, the Czech Kingdom was not established until 1198, when the German king recognized it as hereditary Czech royal title, which was then confirmed by the emperor, the pope and in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily Přemysl Otakar I., as well as other privileges of the Czech Kingdom. The Czech monarch was to be released from all obligations to the Holy Roman Empire in the future except for participation in the Reichstags. Wenceslas I, but especially his son Přemysl Otakar II. then he built a large estate, which reached beyond the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Wenceslas II turned his attention to the north and east, where he managed to gain territory across Poland to the Baltic Sea, and his son Wenceslas III. and Hungarian territory.
- Luxembourg – economic, political and cultural development of Czech society culminated during the reign of Charles IV. (1346–1378), when Prague became the center of the Holy roman empire.
- After the assassination of Wenceslas III. the kingdom found itself in chaos, but the election of John of Luxembourg as king allowed for a new rise, which culminated especially during the reign of John’s son Charles IV. (1316–1378). He established the so-called lands of the Czech Crown in 1348 and under the Czech Crown annexed Brandenburg (until 1415), Lusatia (until 1635) and Silesia (until 1742).
6. 7. 1415
- The scholar and church reformer Master Jan Hus was burned at the stake for his teachings border. He was burned for his criticism of the church, especially for indulgences.
- Hussites, Hussite Wars – Reform current in the Catholic Church, the pursuit of extensive reforms (Jan Žižka). The radical wing of the Hussite movement was defeated in 1434 at the Battle of Lipany.
- George of Podebrady („Hussite King“) – tried to create a medieval one „Community of nations“, Europe was to unite in the fight against the Turks. This the idea ultimately failed.
- The Jagiellonian period.
- The Habsburg rule.
- The reign of Maria Theresa – the so-called Theresian reforms. One of the most significant was the publication of the General School Regulations (1774), which introduced compulsory school attendance for children aged 6 to 12.
- The reign of Joseph II. – son of Maria Theresa, monarch of the Enlightenment. He pushed for a number of Enlightenment reforms: the abolition of slavery, the tolerance patent – an effort to modernize the Habsburg monarchy.
- The process of national revival, during which the modern Czech nation emerges.
- The leading force in the national revival was the progressive Czech intelligentsia (eg Josef Dobrovský, Josef Jungmann, Alois Jirásek, Josef Kajetán Tyl, Karel Hynek Mácha, František Palacký, etc.). The development of modern Czech literature was conditioned by the creation of standard Czech.
- Establishment of Austria-Hungary – a state unit in Central and Eastern Europe, which was established by the settlement after the Prussian-Austrian War. Expired in 1918.
- Laying the foundation stone of the National Theater.
- Grand opening of the National Theater.
- World War I – the result was the disintegration of Austria-Hungary and the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic.
Oct 28, 1918
- Independent Czechoslovak Republic (Czechoslovakia) declared; on the origin
- Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937) and his closest collaborators Edvard Beneš (1884–1948) and Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919) were responsible for the independent Czechoslovak state. T. G. Masaryk was elected the first president (he was elected four times in total).
- World economic crisis.
- Adolf Hitler established a fascist dictatorship.
- President Masaryk’s resignation; E. Beneš elected second president.
- Munich agreement of four great powers between Hitler and representatives of England (Chamberlain), France (Daladier) and Italy (Mussolini) – Czechoslovakia was forced to cede the border area of the Sudetenland Germany.
- About us without us.
March 15, 1939
- The occupation of the Czechoslovak Republic by the German army began (1939–1945), and the autonomous Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was declared on the occupied territory.
- World War II; foreign and domestic resistance
- The activities of members of the Czechoslovak Air Force in the British Royal Air Force during World War II played an important role in the fight against German Nazism
- The assassination of the Reich Protector in Prague, Reinhard Heydrich, was committed – a period of terror followed, the so-called Heydrichiad; Lidice and Ležáky were razed to the ground, many people were executed.
5-9. 5. 1945
- The Prague Uprising broke out.
May 8, 1945
- Signing of the unconditional surrender of Germany in Berlin.
May 9, 1945
- Liberation of Prague by the Red Army.
- During the war, Czechoslovakia lost 360,000 inhabitants, ie 25 citizens out of 1,000. In terms of population losses, it was one of the five most affected in Europe.
- Potsdam Conference – Decision of the three great powers (Russia, USA and Great Britain) on deportation
- German population from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary to Germany.
- The so-called Victorious February – a government crisis has broken out and a communist coup has taken place:
- President E. Beneš appointed a new government headed by Communist Klement Gottwald, then the president refused to sign an undemocratic constitution and resigned, and Klement Gottwald was elected the new president.
- Political processes (General Heliodor Pika, Milada Horakova and others).
- Alexander Dubček was elected the new secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party – he became
- Symbol of the so-called Prague Spring. The Prague Spring (Slovak: pražská jar) is the period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia in 1968
Aug 21, 1968
- The occupation of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic by the troops of the five Warsaw Pact states as a reaction to the revival process of the Prague Spring – reform and democratic development was stopped, A. Dubček was replaced by Gustáv Husák and a period of so-called normalization followed (renewal of the pro-Soviet regime).
- Declaration of Charter 77, the opposition civic movement.
Nov 17, 1989
- Protest demonstrations against the regime, the so-called Velvet Revolution.
- Václav Havel elected President of the Republic.
- In May, the occupation of the occupying forces from Czechoslovakia; Czechoslovakia accepted into the Council of Europe.
Jan 1, 1993
- Establishment of an independent Czech Republic (division of Czechoslovakia).
- Václav Havel was elected president, who won the 1997 election again.
January 19, 1993
- Admission of the Czech Republic to the United Nations.
- Victory in the World Hockey Championship in Nagano.
March 12, 1999
- The Czech Republic was accepted into NATO. Her army has participated in NATO operations in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq, for example.
- Václav Klaus elected President of the Czech Republic. He was elected for the second time in 2008.
May 1, 2004
- Accession of the Czech Republic to the European Union.