London – maturitní otázka z angličtiny [11]

 

Otázka: London

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): anet

 

 

 

 

Basic facts/information

Location

-is situated in the south-east of England

-is the capital city of England, Great Britain and the U.K.

-lies on the both banks of the River Thames

 

Population

-about 8 milions inhabitons(10 milions with suburbs)

 

Means of transport

  • the underground-The Tube

-is the oldest in the world(established in 1863)

 

  • taxis-called Black cabs
  • Red double-decker buses
  • from France to England

-by ferry transport both(people and vehicles)

-from Calais to Dover

  • the Channel Tunnel (the chunnel)

-from Calais to Folkstone

  • by plane

-airports-Heathrow

-Gatwish

-Stansted

 

History

  • 800 B.C.-The Celts setteled the territory
  • 50 B.C.- The Romas came
  • 43 A.D. The Romans established Roman Londinium
  • the 11th century -William the Conqueor came to London
  • 17th century

-1665-The Plague =The Black Death

-during the epidemic about 100,000 people died

-1666-The Great Fire of London

-four-fith(4/5) of London were destroyed

-started in Pudding Lane at the bakery

-The Monument commemorates The Great Fire of London

 

Historical sides

2 main parts:

1)The City(of London)

a)The tower of London

-the oldest building in London

-William the Conqueor built the White Tower in the 11th century

-it used to be as a royal residence(or residence seat)

-a prison-there were 2 wifes of Henry VIII. inprisoned and executed+Thomas Moore

-it was a royal menangerie(ZOO)

-in The Tower there are 7 ravens-if they leave The Tower the British Monarchy will fall

-they wings are clipped

– every raven has a own name

 

The Guards of the Tower

-they guarded prisoners-in the past

-have ceremonial duties-at present

-they called Beefeaters-they wear Tudor uniforms-the uniform is dark blue with red trimmings-on the front there are 2 letters: E-represents Elisabeth II., R-represents Rex or Regina

-at present the Crown Jewels are kept in the Tower

-inside there is a collection of weapons

-each night the ceremony of keys takes place in the Tower-during the ceremony all gates are locked

 

b)Bridges over the Thames

-about 30 bridges

 

Tower Bridge

– was built in the 19th century

-it can be opened in the middle and let ships go through, it takes 90 seconds to open

 

London Bridge

-the oldest bridge over the river

 

Millenium Bridge

-opened in 2000

 

c)St. Paul’s Cathedral

-was built in 17th century after Great fire of London(35 years)

-architect of St. P. C. is Christopher Wren

-the seat of London Biskop

-is built in Barocque Style

-the dome-the 2nd largest in the world

 

Whispering Gallery

-famous occasions took place there-funnerals-for example funneral of Margaret Thatcher or  funneral of Winston Churchil

-wedding of Princess Diana and Prince Charles

 

Heroes burried in Cathedral

-Christopher Wren
-Admiral Horation Nelson(he defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805)

 

d)The centre of financial life

-Bank of England

-Royal Exchange

-Lhoyd’s Insurance Company

 

e)The Monument

-commemorates the place where Great Fire of london started(in Pudding Lane at the bakery)

 

f)London Eye

Millenium wheel

-5 countries took part in constructions

-32 capsules for 25 people, the round trip takes 30 minutes

 

g)Globe Theatre

-it was built in 1599

-Shakespeare played and wrote plays for it

 

2)The city of Westminster

a)The Houses of Parliament

-it is the seat of British Parliament

 

-there are 2 towers

 

Victoria Tower-if the flag flying on the top the British Parliament is sitting

Clock Tower-inside there is a bell called Big Ben(named after one member of Parliament-Benjamin Hall)-the strike of Big Ben is used by BBC as a time signal

 

b)Westminster Abbey

-the most important church in England

-all kings and queens since William the Conquere(11th century) have been crowned there

-last coronation-in 1953 of Elisabeth II.

-the place of great events-funerals-f.e. of Pricess Diana

-weddings-f.e. of Prince William

 

Poets corner

-memorial of famous writers f.e. Ch. Dickens, W.Shakespeare

 

c)Buckingham Palace

-was built at the beginning of the 18th century for Duke of Buckingham

-the seat of Royal family

-the 1st queen-Queen Victoria in the 19th century

-at 11 o’clock every day takes place Special ceremony “Changing the Guards“ in front of Buckingham Palace

-in front of Buckingham Palace there is a Memorial of Victoria(erected in 1911)

 

d)Trafalgar Square

-the main square in London

-in the middle there is Nelson’s Column-50 m high

-on the top there is a statue of Horatio Nelson(he defeated Napolen at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805)

-arround the column- 4 bronze statues of lions

-at the top of the square there is The National Gallery(collection of paintings from the 13th to the 20th century)

 

e)Piccadilly circus

-the busiest place in London

-the centre of entertainment-shops, cinemas, theaters, clubs

-in the middle there is fountain with the statue of Eros(Greek God of love)

 

f)Wellington Arch

-commemorates Duke of Wellington-defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815

 

Parks

-in London are used for relaxation, go jogging,

  • James Park-arround Buckingham Palace
  • Regents Park-near Sherlock Holmes Museum(he was a detective created by Arthur Connan Doyle)
  • Hyde Park-speaker’s corner-a place where everybody can(may) speech

 

Shopping

  • Oxford Street-shops from the cheapest to the most expensive

(in Prague it’s Paris Street, in New York it’s Fifth Avenue)

  • Harrods-the oldest department store in London

-it used to be official supplier of Royal Family






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