Prague – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)

 

Otázka: Prague

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Agonym

 

 

 

 

o capital of the Czech republic, is situated in the middle of Bohemia

o area – nearly 500 sq kms, population – about 1,200,000

o Prague is divided into boroughts

o The historical centre – is made up of the Old Town, the New Town, Josefov, Vyšehrad (situated on the right bank of the Vltava River), the Lesser Quarter (Malá Strana), Hradčany (on the left bank) – they make together a unique picturesque town preserve

o on the other hand there are, of course, many housing estates (sídliště) serving as residential quarters, which are neither interesting nor so beaufitul as the historical centre

o Prague is the seat of our President, the Czech government, state ministries and the Czech parliament

o industrial and business centre, transport junction

§ industrial centre of engineering, food industries, ready-made garments (konfekční oblečení), chemicals, polygraphic industries, tourism

o a variety of architecture can be seen all over the city from the Gothic St. Vitus Cathedral to the Art Noveau Municipal House (secesní Obecní dům) and modern designs like the Dancing House

o cultural centre – offer of many theatrical and music performances (e. g. the Prague Spring International Music Festival in May-June each year), we can find there the best theatres, galleries and museums:

o the National Museum – situated at the top of Wenceslas Square

o the National Gallery – is scattered in various Prague spots

§ Gothic art in St. George Church at the Prague Castle

§ world art and French paintings of the 19th and 20th centuries in Šternberk Palace on the Prague Castle

§ Czech 19th century art in St. Agnes Monastery, sculpture collection in Zbraslav

o the National Theatre

§ build in late Renaissance style from a public money collection in the second half of the 19th century

§ before its ceremonial opening in 1881 it was damage by fire and then was rebuilt and in 1883 opened with the opera Libuše by Bedřich Smetana

§ the best artists of the 19th century decorated the theatre – M. Aleš, F. Ženíšek, V. Hynais – curtain

§ the best Czech actors play here

§ I´ve been here many times (the opera Aida (Giuseppe Verdi), Don Giovanni (W. A. Mozart), Jacobin (Dvořák); ballet the Nutcracker (Louskáček, Čajkovskij), the Swan Lake (Čajkovskij); plays with Miroslav Donutil – The Servant of two Masters)

o in Prague there are many small theatres – Bez Zábradlí Theatre, Na Zábradlí Theatre, Na Fidlovačce Theatre , Jiří Grossman Theatre, Pod Palmovkou Theatre, Na Jezerce (I go there with my family quite often, plays with Jiřina Bohdalová, Jan Hrušínský – Play it again Sam)

 

o other places of culture

§ State Opera, the Congress Centre, the Magic Lantern (laterna magika, a multimedia theatre), the Eastates Theatre (Stavovské divadlo), the Vinohrady Theatre, the Semafor, the Viola, Rudolfinum, the Municipal House

o many clubs for young people and young art – Bunkr, Borát, Malostranská beseda, Roxy, Rock Café

o famous personalities, who lived or spent some time in Prague

§ world-known composers and musicians – Mozart (the Mozart museum in Smíchov), Beethoven, Čajkovskij, Paganini, Wagner

§ philosopher Descartes, Einstein, Lenin

§ writers – Chateaubriand, Kafka, Dostojevskij

§ visited Prague – the Pope, George Bush, B. Obama, Margaret Thatcher, Prince Charles

o centre of sports

§ many stadiums, swimming pools (Podolí) and parks (Letná, Stromovka, Kampa, Petřín), cycle tracks, climbing walls, many tennis courts (Hamr centre)

§ Strahov stadium – the biggest stadium in the world

§ Kampa, Stromovka and Vojanovy sady parks belong to my favourites

o many shopping malls, cinemas, leisure time centres (Arkády Pankrác, Palladium, Zličín, Brumlovka)

o universities (Charles University founded in 1348), colleges, student residences, dormitories

o THE MOST VISITED SIGHTS:

o Prague Castle

§ founded after 880 by the first Přemyslid Prince Bořivoj

§ the greatest period during the reign of Charles IV.

§ 1344 the construction of St. Vitus Cathedral started

 church holds the treasury of the Czech coronation jewels

St. Wenceslas Chapel was built to protect the relics of the most important Czech saint and national patron – St. Wenceslas

§ during the reign of Rudofl II. the Castle became a famous centre of arts and culture

§ famous sights – St. Vitus Cathedral, the Royal Palace with Vladislav Hall, Spanish Hall, the Golden Lane (a legend connects it with Rudolf II.´s alchemists)

§ Deer Ditch (Jelení příkop), Royal Gardens

o Prague Castle is surrounded by the Strahov Monastery and Petřín Hill, where we can visit a look-out tower and miror labyrinth, there is the Prague Municipal Observatory

§ The Church of St. Nicholas – at the centre of the Lesser Quarter Square, a Baroque archutecture

§ Nerudova Street

At the two Suns – well-known Czech writer Jan Neruda used to live there, today a famous pub

§ near the Prague Castle we can find the Royal summer residence called Belveder, a Baroque historical monument the Loreta

 

o Charles Bridge

§ commissioned by Charles IV. in 1357, bulit by the famous Gothic architect Peter Parléř

§ on both ends of the bridge there are Gothic Bridge Towers

§ the second oldest bridge in Central Europe, 520m long, 10m wide

§ in the 18th century the bridge was decorated by Baroque statues by Matyáš Braun and Jan Brokoff

§ during summer it is always full of tourists, souvenir stalls and street artists

o Old Town Square

§ Old Town Hall

§ The Astronomical clock

 strikes every 60 minutes (controlled by a very complicated mechanism bulit in the Middle Ages)

 in the upper part of the horologe (orloj) there is a procession of the Apostles

the horologe is decorated by 12 outer medaillons representing the course of village life, painted by the famous Czech painter Josef Mánes, there are also 12 signs of the Zodiac

§ in the square there are also the monument to Master John Huss, the Gothic Church of Our Lady Before Týn (Týnský chrám), a Gothic tower house called At the Bell (U Zvonu), the Baroque St. Nicholas Church

o The Powder Tower

§ late Gothic style, stands at the end of Prague´s pedestrian zona called King´s Road (Royal Road/Mile)

§ King´s Road – Prague Castle -> Nerudova Street -> we cross the Little Quarter Square -> walk along Mostecká Street -> over the Charles Bridge -> Karlova Street -> The Old Town Square -> Celetná Street -> the Powder Tower

o jewish quarter in Prague – Josefov – six sinagogues, jewish cemetery

o Bethlehem Chaple in Prague – Jan Hus was giving lectures here

o Vyšehrad

§ situated on the rock overlooking the Vltava River

§ as the legend says, Czech Princess Libuše prophesied the glory of Prague from here

§ formerly one of Prague´s town, originally the castle of the Přemyslids (at the end of the 11th century and in the first half of the 12th century)

§ there is the National Cemetery – the famous Czech personalities in the sphere of culture, science and politics were buried here (Čapek, Smetana, Dvořák, Myslbek)

§ the original Romanesque Church of Saints Peter and Paul (rebuilt in Neo-Gothic style)

o The Carolinum

§ the oldest building of Charles University founded in 1348 (it was the first institution of this kind in Central Europe)

o The Clementinum

§ a significant centre of education and culture

§ the second largest building complex in Prague (after Prague Castle)

§ bulit at the end of the 17th century

§ there is a seat of the State Library, from 2010 it´s under reconstruction

o Wenceslas Square

§ about 750m long and 60m wide

§ the statue of the Czech patron – St. Wenceslas – made by J. V. Myslbek, symbol of free and independent republic

§ people usually gather here in troublesome moments of Czech history

o The Vltava River

§ flows through Prague and surrounds 7 islands (Slavic Island – Žofín), about 18 bridges stretch over the river

§ bridges – The Legion Bridge, The Charles Bridge, Mánes Bridge, Palacký Bridge

§ inspired Smetama to compose his amazing music (the symphonic poem Vltava from the symphonic cycle Má Vlast)

§ Kampa Island – separated from the Lesser Quarter by a small canal called Čertovka, in te past there used to be many mills on Kampa, two big wooden mill wheels are still preserved today

o Křižík´s Fountain – ballet performances, water performances with music, near Letná park

o What I like about Prague

§ shopping malls, italian restaurants, cinemas, theatres, parks, trams (there are a lot of culture and sport facilities/many culture and sport events)

§ unique historical centre, special atmosphere

o What I dislike about Prague

§ overcrowded pavements

§ during rush hours – overcrowded undergroung, blocked roads

§ homeless people, drug addicts, deviants

§ expensive tickets

o My last visit to Prague

o Me and Prague – how often I go there, why, where I stay, future (university, flat, job)

o Prague history

§ established in the 19th century, the seat of Czech princes and later kings of Bohemia

§ Charles IV. (1316-1378)

 Bohemian King and Holy Roman Emperor

 chose the city as the capital of his whole Empire

 he founded Charles University, St. Vitus Cathedral, Charles Bridge and the New Town

§ Prague is connected with the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus and the Hussite movement

§ Thirty Year´s War began with the uprising of the Czech Estates in the early 17th century (povstání městských stavů)

§ The Czech National Revival (Národní obrození) in the 19th century restored once again Prague´s prominence (důležitost, význačnost)

§ In 1918, the city became the capital of Czechoslovakia, 1993 the capital of the Czech republic






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