Prague – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

Otázka: Prague

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Jindrisekfou

 

 

 

 

introduction, basic facts

–        The capital of the Czech republic, also the biggest city

–        Around 1,2 million inhabitants (with the suburbs and outskirts)

–        It’s also an independent region – region of the Capital of Prague -> surrounded by the region of Central Bohemia

–        Situated in the centre of the Czech republic -> the heart of the CZ, the heart of Europe

–        “Golden Prague”, “Prague – mother of all cities”, “hundred-towered Prague”, “town of 100 spires”

–        The crossroad of all roadways, railways

–        It’s the seat of the president, the government and the parliament

–        The centre of industry, tourism and business, economy and politics

–        Developed tourism

–        River Vltava flows through the city

–        Prague has 15 districts/constituencies, 57 quarters

–        There are many architectural styles -> that’s one of the reasons why so many tourists some to visit every year

 

a little bit of history

–        Prague has a very rich history so I would like to speak about few most important moments

–        There is this legend which says that princess Libuše once had a vision in which she saw a city “whose glory touches the stars”. This city was Prague.

–        First mentions about Prague are from 9th century -> that’s when the ruling dynasty – the Premyslids moved their seat from Levý Hradec to Prague

  • They founded the Old Town – 870 Prague Castle was founded
  • Then the New Town was founded
  • Prague consisted of four oldest independent parts: Hradčany (the Castle district, Lesser quarter (Malá Strana), Old Town, New Town

–        It became the seat of the first Czech king Vratislaus II. – 1085

–        The rule of Charles IV. -> flourishing of the city -> Prague became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire

  • He founded the Charles University (1348), the Charles Bridge (1357), the Castle of Karlštejn
  • He was an enlightened ruler/monarch

–        14th – 16th century the movement of the Hussites -> 1415 John Huss was burnt in Konstanz

–        During the rule of Rudolf II. In the 16th century Prague was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire again, new flourishing of the city

  • Famous personalities of that time came to Prague -> Tycho de Brahe, Johannes Kepler

–        1621 the execution of 27 Czech nobles at the Old Town Square (consequence of the battle of the White Mountain – beginning of the 30 years’ war)

–        1918 after the World War 1 Prague became the capital of Czechoslovakia

–        1938 the beginning of Nazi occupation (the Munich treaty) (17.11.1939 the Day of Students -> the Prague universities were closed)

–        5. 5. 1945 an uprising in Prague against the Nazi Army -> the end of World War 2 (8.5.)

–        1948 the Communists take over the power

–        1968 the Prague Spring -> Soviet army invasion

–        1989 the Velvet Revolution -> the fall of communism

–        1993 Independent Czech Republic -> Prague is the capital

 

 

monuments

–        They are the main reason for tourists to come

–        Prague is one of the oldest cities in the Europe, the are a lot of interesting places and historic buildings

–        Many of them are preserved and protected by UNESCO

–        The Prague Castle

  • It’s the seat of the president of the Czech republic
  • There are beautiful gardens -> called Belvedere
  • 2 towers -> Daliborka and the Black Tower
  • Was built by the Premyslids

–        St. Vitus’ Cathedral

  • Founded by Jan Lucemburský
  • Finish in the beginning of the 20th century

–        The Charles Bridge

  • 1357 – second oldest bridge in the Central Europe
  • Replaced the Judith Bridge which used to be there before (made of wood)
  • The statues were added many years later -> in the baroque -> Petr Parléř

–        The Carolinum

  • It’s the seat of the Charles University -> the rector’s office
  • Charles University -> the oldest university in the Central Europe

–        The Old Town Square

  • The execution of 27 Czech nobles
  • The Church of St. Nicolas (orthodox)
  • A gallery
  • The Astronomical Clock -> statues of the Apostoles (in the 15th century)
  • The Paris Avenue -> famous fashion designers

–        St. Wenceslas Square

  • The statue of St. Wenceslas on the horse -> he is the patron of the Czech nation
  • There are many shops and boutiques, department stores; a lot of clubs, bars and restaurants
  • Behind the statue there is the National Museum (art nouveau) -> huge exposition, science and art (now it is in reconstruction)

–        The National Theatre

  • On the bank of Vltava
  • “the nation to itself”
  • The most famous artist of that time -> art nouveau à Žníšek (architect), Hynais (the curtain), Mucha, Myslbek – painters
  • There was a big fire and the theatre needed to be reconstructed -> the money were collected from people -> in 4 weeks enough

–        The Estates Theatre

  • There was the premiere of the play Fidlovačka -> National Anthem “Where is my home?” -> composed by F. Škroup and lyrics by J. K. Tyl
  • W. A. Mozart himself there his opera Don Juan

–        The Vyšehrad

  • There is a big graveyard where many famous personalities were buried
  • Vyšehrad used to be a fortress

–        The Petřín

  • Gardens with an observation tower inspired by the Eiffel tower in Paris
  • A place of all the amorous people

–        The Golden Street

  • Picturesque small street, small houses
  • Small shops with souvenirs

–        The Chapel of the Bethlehem

  • John Huss preached there

–        Josefov

  • The old Jewish quarter
  • Old Jewish cemetery, Old New Synagogue

–        The Dancing House

  • Modern office building designed by Milunič and Gehry
  • Fred Aster and Ginger Rogers

transport

–        Bus -> cheap

–        Tram -> quiet, not expensive, even at night

–        Metro -> 3 lines, fastest

–        Taxi -> expensive, for tourists, at the airport

–        Carriage -> expensive, touristic experience

–        Boats -> for tourists, expensive; botels, parties

–        Train -> travelling around Prague, connection with smaller cities

–        Car -> traffic jams (the bypass is not finished yet); difficult to find a parking lot – the blue line

–        Airplane -> airport Ruzyně (the Czechs think about renaming it after the recently passed away former president Václav Havel), international travelling

–        A lot of architectural styles: Romanesque (St. George’s basilica), gothic (St. Vitus’ Cathedral)renaissance (Belvedere, Spanish Hall), baroque (almost all churches), art nouveau (the Municipal House), Neo-classical (the National Theatre)

 

The royal route

–        From the Prague Castle to the Powder Tower

–        Used by Czech kings on the way to the coronation (passed through)

–        Originally started at Vyšehrad

–        Starts in the Kings Quad (nádvoří – Králův dvůr) by the Powder Tower (the Old Town)  Celetná street  Old Town Square (The Astronomical Clock)  the Small Square Charles’ Street (Klementinum)  Křižovnické square  under the Old Town bridge gate  the Charles Brigde  under the Lesser Town bridge gate  Mostecká street  Lesser town Square Nerudova street  Ke Hradu street (Pohořelec once)  Hradčanské (Castle?) square  the Prague Castle St. Vitus Cathedral

–        Many important sights  today a popular tourist route

 

what to do in prague, activities

–        A lot of cultural activities and events

–        Galleries

  • The National Gallery
  • The National Museum
  • The Mánes Gallery
  • The Mucha Museum

–        Theatres

  • The National Theatre
  • The Estates Theatre
  • The Vinohrady theatre
  • The Theatre of Jára Cimrman

–        Cinemas

  • In big shopping centres – Smíchov, Letňany, Zličín….
  • But also Světozor, Aero, Lucerna

–        Plenty of clubs, bars and restaurants -> rich nightlife – popular among tourists and students

–        The Troja Zoo -> one of the biggest European Zoos

–        Shopping -> many huge shopping centres all around Prague, in the centre -> Palladium; also small shops and boutiques; clothes and fashion are quite expensive in Prague and CZ generally

–        Lots of events and special occasions -> Prague Spring, Majáles, Festivals, concerts

–        Prague is a really popular and plentifully visited by tourists

–        A lot of foreign students come to study in Prague

–        One of the most beautiful cities in the Europe

 

 

Other remarkable places

–        Kutná hora – silver mines; cathedral

–        Karlštejn – castle built by Charles IV. the golden chapel

–        Říp – hill + rotunda; according to legend grand father Czech came here

–        Karlovy vary – spas + center






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