Otázka: Sociallife – jobs and occupations
Most people do their job to earn a living. But doing a job also satisfies one’s need to be useful and to use his talents.
Jobs can be divided into two main groups: manual and intellectual. People doing manual work are sometimes called blue-collars and people doing intellectual work white-collars. The difference between these two groups is in required education and the salary. The salary often depends on education and work experience.
In manual jobs people do manual work. The education for them is shorter than the preparation for intellectual jobs. Young people are trained for them in Apprentice centres for two or three years. Two years are for the simplest jobs like mason. Longer education can last three years for professions like cooks, electricians, mechanics, hairdresser, plumbers or miners. But there are also professions for which you must study four years and have school leaving examination, such as for example beautician, shop assistant or decorator.And there are also jobs where you don’t need any education – like a digger or housekeeper.
For intellectualjobs people pass the school leaving examination or even study some kind of university.After graduation they become doctors, engineers or professors. The higher education you have, the better salary you usually get. But this doesn’t work automatically. Work in some parts of the economy is paid better, and in others it is worse.
Intellectual jobs can be divided into several groups:
Economic jobs: accountants, bankers, economists, various managers;
Humanistic jobs: such as historians, judges ,lawyers, language teachers or theoreticians, philosophers and so on
Technical jobs: like architects, machine engineers, electrical engineers, IT professionals and others
Natural science jobs: medicine doctors and nurses, veterinarians, biologists.
Art jobs are special kinds of jobs in which people use their imagination and talent. They are painters, sculptors, actors, writers, musicians. There is another special sort of intellectual jobs, for which there is no special education: politicians, ministers, senators and of course a president.
There are various types of employment: people can work either in the state sector or in the private sector.
The state sector now includes mostly various offices, goverment department, courts, schools and also health service. Jobs in state institutions usually are not paid so much but offer stability and guarantee. Or you can work in the private sector – from a small private firm up to a big multinational corporation. Work conditions are rougher here. Employers have higher demands for qualifications, skills, and working hours On the other hand they can offer better salaries or a share in profits. Some people don’t like fork for anybody and they work for themselves. Sometimes it can be very difficult, you have to work long hours, sometimes you don’t have weekends or holidays, and you can have problems with loans or taxes. But it gives you a feeling of freedom, These jobs are called free lance and include artists, journalists, but also for example accountants.
When somebody looks for a job, he usually searches advertisements on newspapers or online. There are also specialised personnel agencies which help people find job and employers find suitable employees.When you find an interesting offer, you have to write down a motivation letter including job application and curriculum vitae or CV. The CV is very important. It describes your education, qualifications and work experience. The future employer chooses his employee based on the CV. If he chooses you, he invites you for an interview. He wants to meet you personally and discuss with you your plans and demands. If his requirements and your demands fit together, you will probably get the job. Then you will sign the work contract which will include all important work conditions, such as salary, work hours, and holiday.
Accountant – účetní
Actor,actress – herec
Banker – bankéř
business man/woman – obchodník
clerk – úředník
computer technician – počítačovýte technik
cook – kuchař
decorator – aranžér
digger – kopáč
doctor – doktor
economist – ekonom
electrician – elektrikář
engineer – inženýr
factory worker – dělník v továrně
farmer – farmář
firefighter – hasič
gardener – zahradník
hairdresser – holič
housekeeper – hospodyně, uklízečka
house-wife – žena v domácnosti
janitor – vrátný,správce
journalist – novinář
judge – soudce
lawyer – právník
mason – zedník
mechanic – mechanik
miner – horník
nurse – sestra
pastor,priest pastor – kněz
photographer – fotograf
pilot – pilot
plumber – instalatér
policeman – policista
politician – politik
secretary – sekretářka
teacher – učitel
veterinary – veterinář
waiter,waitress – číšník, servírka
application – žádost
apprentice centre – učiliště
apprenticeship – učení, zaučení
benefits – výhody
blue-collar – dělnický pracovník
CV (curricuium vitae) – životopis
Employee – zaměstnanec
Employer – zaměstnavateI
free lance – volná noha
holiday – prázdniny, dovoIená
manager – manažer
probation – zkušebníobdobí
profession – profese
qualifications – kvalifikace
salary – plat
unemployed – nezaměstnaný
white collar úředník – duševně pracující
work contract – pracovní smlouva
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