Sociallife – jobs and occupations – angličtina

angličtina

 

Otázka: Sociallife – jobs and occupations

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Dee

 

 

Most people do their job to earn a living. But doing a job also satisfies one’s need to be useful and to use his talents.

 

Jobs can be divided into two main groups: manual and intellectual. People doing manual work are sometimes called blue-collars and people doing intellectual work white-collars. The difference between these two groups is in required education and the salary. The salary often depends on education and work experience.

 

In manual jobs people do manual work. The education for them is shorter than the preparation for intellectual jobs. Young people are trained for them in Apprentice centres for two or three years. Two years are for the simplest jobs like mason. Longer education can last three years for professions like cooks, electricians, mechanics, hairdresser, plumbers or miners. But there are also professions for which you must study four years and have school leaving examination, such as for example beautician, shop assistant or decorator.And there are also jobs where you don’t need any education – like a digger or housekeeper.

 

For intellectualjobs people pass the school leaving examination or even study some kind of university.After graduation they become doctors, engineers or professors. The higher education you have, the better salary you usually get. But this doesn’t work automatically. Work in some parts of the economy is paid better, and in others it is worse.

 

Intellectual jobs can be divided into several groups:

Economic jobs: accountants, bankers, economists, various managers;

Humanistic jobs: such as historians, judges ,lawyers, language teachers or theoreticians, philosophers and so on

Technical jobs: like architects, machine engineers, electrical engineers, IT professionals and others

Natural science jobs: medicine doctors and nurses, veterinarians, biologists.

Art jobs are special kinds of jobs in which people use their imagination and talent. They are painters, sculptors, actors, writers, musicians. There is another special sort of intellectual jobs, for which there is no special education: politicians, ministers, senators and of course a president.

 

There are various types of employment: people can work either in the state sector or in the private sector.

The state sector now includes mostly various offices, goverment department, courts, schools and also health service. Jobs in state institutions usually are not paid so much but offer stability and guarantee. Or you can work in the private sector – from a small private firm up to a big multinational corporation. Work conditions are rougher here. Employers have higher demands for qualifications, skills, and working hours On the other hand they can offer better salaries or a share in profits. Some people don’t like fork for anybody and they work for themselves. Sometimes it can be very difficult, you have to work long hours, sometimes you don’t have weekends or holidays, and you can have problems with loans or taxes. But it gives you a feeling of freedom, These jobs are called free lance and include artists, journalists, but also for example accountants.

 

When somebody looks for a job, he usually searches advertisements on newspapers or online. There are also specialised personnel agencies which help people find job and employers find suitable employees.When you find an interesting offer, you have to write down a motivation letter including job application and curriculum vitae or CV. The CV is very important. It describes your education, qualifications and work experience. The future employer chooses his employee based on the CV. If he chooses you, he invites you for an interview. He wants to meet you personally and discuss with you your plans and demands. If his requirements and your demands fit together, you will probably get the job. Then you will sign the work contract which will include all important work conditions, such as salary, work hours, and holiday.

 

Proffesions (vocabulary)

Accountant – účetní

Actor,actress – herec

Artist-  umělec

Banker – bankéř

business man/woman – obchodník

clerk – úředník

computer technician – počítačovýte technik

cook – kuchař

decorator – aranžér

digger – kopáč

doctor – doktor

economist – ekonom

electrician – elektrikář

engineer – inženýr

factory worker – dělník v továrně

farmer – farmář

firefighter – hasič

gardener – zahradník

hairdresser – holič

housekeeper – hospodyně, uklízečka

house-wife – žena v domácnosti

janitor – vrátný,správce

journalist – novinář

judge – soudce

lawyer – právník

mason – zedník

mechanic – mechanik

miner – horník

nurse – sestra

pastor,priest pastor – kněz

photographer – fotograf

pilot – pilot

plumber – instalatér

policeman – policista

politician – politik

secretary –  sekretářka

teacher – učitel

translator  -překladatel

veterinary – veterinář

waiter,waitress – číšník, servírka

 

Employment (vocabulary)

application – žádost

apprentice centre – učiliště

apprenticeship – učení, zaučení

benefits – výhody

blue-collar – dělnický pracovník

CV (curricuium vitae) – životopis

Employee – zaměstnanec

Employer – zaměstnavateI

free lance – volná noha

holiday – prázdniny, dovoIená

manager – manažer

probation – zkušebníobdobí

profession – profese

qualifications – kvalifikace

salary – plat

unemployed –  nezaměstnaný

white collar úředník – duševně pracující

work contract – pracovní smlouva





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