Otázka: Some important events in American History
I would like to speak about some important events in American history.
The North American continent was first populated thirty-five thousand years ago. According to the most widely held theory, the first people migrated from Siberia to America. Now they are called native Americans. Aften Vikings discovered American continent one thousand years ago. But in 1492 Christopher Colombus discovered American continent. Colombus was a Italian, but he sailed on behalf of the Spanish king and Queen on an economic mission. When he landed on a island in the Carribean, Colombus believed that he had landed on a coast of India and he named the natives Indians. Christopher Colombus returned to Spain with little wealth for the King and Queen and actually ended (spent) his (last) days in proverty. However, his voyage meant the beggining of a new era of European colonization in America and a virtual decimation of the Native American population. Although Colombus claimed land in the New World for Spain, the continent is named after Amerigo Vespucci, another Italian explorer who made many voyages to South America to write detailed works of the New World. In 17th century, America was a colonial land of many Western European countries. There were mainly British colonists, but also German, French, Italian, Potuguese or Spanish. The first colony established by the English was called Virginia. In the 17th century there were 13 colonies under British rule. There were also milions of slaves who brought from Africa to work for the colonists.
One very important event of American history is the War for Independence. British government started to change new tax and the colonists refused to pay it and so British soldiers were sent to Boston and there was the first conflict. Colonists dressed as Indians and threw all the British tea into Boston Harbour. This even became known as the Boston Tea Party. The War of Independence began in 1775. The leaders of the American Revolution were George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. On 4 July 1776, the colonist declared their independence from Britain and the United States of America was founded. Representatives of all 13 colonies met in Philadelphia to sing the Declaration of Independece. In 1789, George Washington was the first president of the United States. Washington is a great national hero known for his honesty, integrity and leadership (also he himself was slave owners).
In 19th century there were arguments about slaves’ freedom. Economic and political differences grew between Nothern and Southern states. In the south, the economy was based on agriculture and slavery and In the nort, there were more industrial and slavery was illegal.
In 1861 A Civil War began between the North and the South. The President Abraham Lincoln wanted freedom for all Americans including slaves. The southern farmers disagreed because they needed slaves for work on their farms. In 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which granted freedom to all slaves. However, black people remained completely segregated in US society (in restaurant and schools) until the Civil Right movement led by Martin Luther King Jr. He was assassinated in 1968. The war ended in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated.
In 1867 Alaska and Hawai became parts of the USA.
In 20th century, the United States is considered a world power because of its military strenght. America participated on both world wars during this time.
When First World War started in Europe in 1914, the United States remained neutral. But when American ships transported supplies to Britain and France, they were attacked by German boats. In 1917, President Wilson decided to enter the war against Germany and they helped to finish the war. The Germany was defeated by the United States and its allies, Italy, France and Great Britain.
Second World War began in Europe in 1939. American’s prezident Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to keep the country neutral, but the Japanesse attacked in Pearl Harbor
on 7 December 1941 and brought the US into the war. Germany was defeated in 1945. But in the Pacific Ocean the fights were continued. Japanese pilots called kamikaze pilots crashing bomb-laden planes into American ships. On 6 August 1945 the Americans dropped the first atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. After a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. After Japan capitulated and Second World War ended.
The USA became one of two superpowers (The Soviet Union was the other).
After Second World War, The Atomic age began and the USA and Union Soviet began a contest to dominate the world. The Cold War lasted over forty years. Sometimes it looked like it came the Third World War. The Cold War ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. During the Cold War there were some conflicts such as Korea’s War, The War in Vietnam or Soviet envasion in Afghanistan. Today the USA is th eonly superpower in the world.
In conclusion I would like to mention 11 September 2001. It was a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda. It was attack on Nwe York city and the Washington DC. That morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four aircrafts and two of planes were crashed into the North and South towers of The World Trade Centre. A third plane was crashed into the Pentagon in Washington DC. A fourth plane was targeted at the United States Capitol in Washington DC, but the plane crashed into a field after its passangers tried to overcome the hijackers.
It caused the War in Iraq. It ended when American forces killed the group’s leader Osama bin Laden.