Otázka: The UK political system
THE UK POLITICAL SYSTEM
- It is parliamentary and constitutional monarchy
- It is democracy, in which the country is governed by representatives of the people, Parliament, but the official head of state is the sovereign
- The rules which govern the political system are not be found in any single constitutional document. Many of them are customs or conventions. The whole system is very adaptable.
- The constitution is made up of:
- statue law( acts of Parliament)
- common law(law of precedent)
- conventions(Europian legislation)
- Political power is divided into three branches: legislative, executive, judicial.
Chief Govermental institutions
- Parliament– chief of legislative body
- Central Goverment– represents executive power
- Law Courts– Judicial power
- the supreme legislative authority, legislative branch
- consists of two Houses: 1)The House of Lords and 2)the House of Commons(lidu)
- The U.K is a unitary state. All four countries of the UK are represented in the Parliament at Westminster in London.
1)The House of Lords
- it is a relic
- consists of :
- the Lords Spiritual: the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York and 24 senior bishops
- the Lords Temporal: hereditary peers, 300 life peers , 20 law lords,
Lords of APPEAL.
2)The House of Commons
- consists of 650 salaried members
- elected for 5 years
- each member represents a constituency – the chairman of the House of Common is the Speaker, who is elected at the ..beginning of each new Parliamentary session by the Members of Parliament.
- chief officer: Speaker
- Main fuctions :are debating, passing laws and examiningthe actions of the Goverment.
The Executive branch
The British Goverment
- is the supreme executive authority, the executive branch
- consist of the Prime Minister, who is leader of the Govermen party and other ministers.
- The Goverment is answerable to Parliament.
- consist of over 80 members
- executive power is in the hands of the Cabinet, a group of about 20 ministers, chosen by the Prime Minister from the members of his party.
- The Prime Minister lives and works at his official residence at No. 10 Downing Street.
The Sovereign- The Queen
- is the formal head of the UK and the Commonwealth (britské společenství národů) the armed forces, the system of justice, and of the Anglican Church.
- The Queen formally summons) Parliament and has also the right to dissolve(rozpustit)it, signs laws.
- She opens the sessions of Parliament in the House of Lords..etc
- The present sovereign is Elisabeth II. The Queen has four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, Edward.
The Judicial branch
- is headed by the Highest court made up of 10 law lords, who are members of the House of Lords.
Political parties (2 party system)
- The Conservative Party – it is right of centre
- The Labour Party- it is left of centre
- The Liberal democratic party