Washington, D.C. – maturitní otázka z angličtiny

 

  Otázka: Washington, D.C.

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Adriana Pavliková

 

 

 

 

WASHINGTON

  • covers the entire area of the District of Columbia à DC
  • the capital of the USA (replacing Philadelphia in 1800); named after G. WASHINGTON
  • seat of the Federal government of the US; residence of the US president and the Supreme Court
  • area: 180 km2
  • population: 623 000 (360 000 employed by the Federal Government)
  • situated on the Potomac River; divided into 4 quadrants: Northeast, Northwest, Southwest and Southeast
  • it looks and functions as a white-collar town; 40 % of the city’s land occupied by the federal buildings
    • hundreds of national and international organisations have offices there
      • the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Org. of American States … are based in the city
    • scientific and development complexes built around the capital
    • the press: the Washington Post, USA Today, National Geographic, International Wildlife … with headquarters in Washington
  • 3 airports: Washington National Airport, Dulles International Airport and Baltimore-Washington International Airport
  • Union Station (railroad station), the subway system (5 lines), taxis, buses

 

History

  • District of Columbia was established by Act of Congress (1790)
  • designed by a French engineer (Pierre l’ENFANT who was helped by Thomas JEFFERSON) à several other architects involved later
  • streets and avenues laid out on agrid scheme (numbered, later named after the states); horizontal and spacious city
  • focus was laid on developing and maintaining the parks and green spaces
  • first used as a seat of the Congress in 1800

 

Places of Interest

  • the White House: the president’s residence; exterior walls made of sandstone and painted white, universally recognised as the symbol of the US presidency; official rooms on the first floor, second and the third floor reserved for the presidential family
  • the Pentagon: the largest single structure building in the world; the headquarters of the Department of Defence
  • the Capitol: prominent landmark on the Capitol Hill; the seat of the Congress; the Senate wingin the north and the House of Representatives wing in the south; a bronze Statue of Freedom; the Library of Congress (Thomas Jefferson building) added to the Capitol, it is the largest library in existence
  • Washington monument: a white marble obelisk; Jefferson Memorial: an adaptation of the ancient Roman Pantheon with a statue of T. Jefferson holding the Declaration of Independence; Lincoln Memorial: inspired by Greek architecture, a Doric temple reminiscent of the Parthenon in Athens with a statue of seated Lincoln
  • Smithsonian Institution: one of the largest museum and research complexes in the world; comprises of 14 museums and the National Zoo; the symbol is the red sandstone Castle which functions as a visitor’s information centre
  • Georgetown University: the oldest and best reputed in Washington; 1789, the first Catholic institution of higher learning in the country
  • Mount Vernon: 16 miles south of Washington; Washington’s private mansion, he and his wife are buried in its grounds






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