American History – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)

 

  Otázka: American History

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): hanka_p

 

 

American history, over the map of the USA

 

The US history:

  1. Pre-Columbus era
  2. Colonial period
  3. The war for independence
  4. After the war for independence
  5. 20th, 21th centuries – Modern history

 

Pre-Columbus era

native Americans came from Asia, they crossed the Bering Strait – ice/land bridge

> spread to the south – because of the weather – in north there were long polar nights

– they lived from the nature (hunting, gathering, fishing) and primitive agriculture

– good architects and builders (pyramids in Mexico)

 

1429 – Columbus discovered the continent

– he wanted find new way to India > he called the people Indians

 

Colonial period

sea explorer, sailor, captain – Amerigo Vespucci

– explore Brasil

– the continent is called after him

new plants to Europe – potatoes, beans, corn, tobacco, fur products …

 

reasons for emigration (from) or immigration (into)

–  looking for new opportunities, starting new life

– losers, criminals (committed a crime), thieves

– want to escape

– because of political, religions, economics reasons

– start their own business

– looking for natural wealth (gold rush)

– looking for own a piece of land

– working/ studying opportunities

– establishing missions

– fighting over new territories – people were hired as a soldiers

– indentured servants (black people) – 7 years > free > new opportunities

– serve, help their masters for  the period of 7 years

– to escape wars

– today: money, fame, study

 

the oldest permanent settlement

– St. Augustine 1564 (Spain)- Florida

– Jamestown 1607 (England) – Virginia (Elisabeth I. – virgin queen)

>>

started building big cities/towns – Boston, New York, Philadelphia

 

the Pilgrim story 1620

– puritan refugees from England- they wanted to purity themselves from the Anglican church (because in England there was much religious persecution (king James would not allow them to attendant the church of their choice)

> left England to find a place that would let them worship God in their own way

> sailed to Amsterdam > finally settled in Holland

> they sailed to North America, where they could established their own community and keep the English language

– 2 ships – Speedwell, Mayflower

> began their journey across the Atlantic ocean, but Speedwell began developing a leak

> both ships had to return to port

> on September 6, 1620 the Mayflower set sail alone with 102 people aboard

– not enough food

– cold – couldn’t set fire, because the ship was made of wood

– illnesses

– baby was born there, the baby was called Oceanus

> saw the land 11.11., but landed 21.11.

– they wanted to Jamestown, but they were drifted by the currents and wind to Plymouth, Massachusetts

> all had to sign the “Mayflower compact” (first written document?)

= agreement to the fact that they are still loyal to the king of kingdom, but would set their own laws

> began to build a settlement near Massachusetts

– Indians helped them – learn how to build, hunt, plant…

> harvest = a lot of food

Pilgrims were thankful for the help > they invited Indians for a feast of “thanksgiving”

THANKSGIVING – thanks to Indians, God, nature/new fertile land

– giving thanks for all blessings

– first was in October, today 4. Thursday (?) in November

– food: turkey, seafood

– today: family is together

watch American football, parade

food: turkey, cranberries, pumpkin pie, sweet potatoes

family pray before the food

– black Friday – sales

 

1619 – the first black Africans were brought to America

– arrived in Jamestown

– indentured servants

– 1660’s they were turned into permanent slaves

> big problem

 

period of:  immigration

expansion > tension between Indians and colonists > conflicts

tension between colonists and the English king

disagreement over slavery

rivalry between England and France over new territories

 

The war for independence

1620 – 1776 – it was developing for many years

colonists wanted to be free – separate themselves from England

– there was hatred, they were frustrated

English king needed money for the war with France, to cover the cost > he exploited them

– limited trade (just with UK, gave them their prices)

– new laws were passed by English parliament, but there weren’t any representatives > rising taxes

“no taxation without representation”

– imposed high taxes and duties on all English goods > they had to pay it, for example tea

 

1770 Boston Massacre

in America there were many soldiers to controle the colonists

– soldiers were at the square > colonist shouted slogans and threw snowballs, but one of them threw a rock and soldiers started shooting > 5 men died

> unrest > one incident after another

 

1773 Boston tea party

colonists were dressed like Indians and broke into the ship > threw all the tea-cargo into the sea

– protest against high taxes and duties

– it wasn’t the beginning of war, they just wanted to have representatives in parliament

> the English king let them pay it and gave them penalty, but they didn’t want to pay it

> the tension was growing

 

1774, 1775 continental congresses

colonist started assemble in Philadelphia

– deputies, delegates, representatives

for the first time they spoke about separation and how to became independent (war)

on the second meeting they established the army

– first commander in chief – George Washington

 

  1. 7. 1776 The declaration of independence

wrote by Thomas Jefferson – read it n the square in Philadelphia, svolal lidi – liberty bell

= announced/declare independence

  1. all men are created equal
  2. separate themselves from England – break all political conections

> independent united states

 

English king didn’t want to give up easily > war – lasted 7 years

1783 – England recognized/accepted American independence

 

After the war for independence

first president George Washington

first government > constitution – the oldest democratic constitution (1789)

– consisted of 7 articles

– they weren’t happy with it – it was too vague – no individual freedoms

– 1791 – first ten amendments were added = the bill of rights (základní listina práv  svobod)

  1. amendment: basic individual freedoms (freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly)
  2. amendment: the right to wear arms – to defend myself and my property

1803 – the Louisiana purchase

– Napoleon needed money for the war in Europe > sold the French territories

> Americans doubled their territories

 

1849 – Gold rush

– gold was discovered I California

 

period of: reconstruction

further territorial expansion

wild capitalism

 

Civil war

3 main causes: slavery issue (since 1660’s)

clash of 2 different systems

fight over new territories

north against south – 2 systems were criticizing each other

– north: industrial, modern, capitalist, progressive

– capitalism + progress, richness

–  jobless, homeless, poorness, social differences, no social security

– wanted abolish slavery

– south: old, agricultural (good weather), aristocratic, prosperous

– plantation (tobacco, cotton) – slave labour

– north said it’s not human – they are treating them like animals – separate families

it’s against the declaration

but they gave them food, house, … and it prosperes

– the 2 systems were developing next to each other – balance

– Nebraska, Cansas – they didn’t know if they will be capitalistic or agricultural

> afraid of losing balance – the other system would be stronger

 

immediate cause

Abraham Lincoln was elected as President

– ho wanted to abolish the slavery

1863 The emancipation proclamation

> all slaves were set free

 

at the beginning was south more successful – they defend in what they believed

north – hired soldiers, didn’t know for what they’re fighting

but in the end won the north because of the better weapons

 

Modern history

Great depression = Wall Street Crash – October 1929

1940 – 1990 – the Cold War (the USA against Soviet Union)

1960 – 1970 – the war in Vietnam

11.9.2001 – terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre






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