Problems of the contemporary world

 

Otázka: Problems of the contemporary world

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Petra Komárková

 

 

What is the environment? / Co je životní prostředí?/

What was the development of the relationship between people and nature in the course of time? /Jaký byl rozvoj vztahů mezi lidmi a přírodou v průběhu času?/

  • For millions of years, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere have been in balance on the Earth.
  • The environment are the people, the plant and animal world, the water, the air and the Earth.
  • In the past human was dependent on nature.
  • Civilization has been developing for millions of years.
  • In the beginning, humans lived in harmony with nature.
  • Over the course of time people started to exploit nature more and more.
  • Today we have many problems as a result of this exploitation.
  • Nowadays people use more soil, wood, raw materials.
  • The raw materials are often mined useless.
  • We take everything from nature, but not always in the right way.
  • We are destroying the environment and that is a big problem.
  • Our fragile Earth is harmed and there is a question: Is it too late to save life on the Earth?

 

How is our environment burdened and threatened? /bérdend + fretend/ / Čím je životní prostředí namáháno a ohroženo?/

  • The biggest problem that civilization has is pollution of the environment.
  • Our environment is polluted by exhaust gases, fumes and exhaust fumes, sewage, waste, oil spills after tank accidents, pollutants that are produced during production in industry and agriculture.
  • Mass media report almost daily on various ecological disasters – for example, tanker accidents, ….
  • If we also want to breathe fresh air in the future, if we want to admire the natural beauties of our planet, we must not be indifferent.
  • Millions of people suffer or die each year from the consequences of severe environmental pollution. Because their mothers are poisoned, children come along disabilities to the world. The dirtiest cities are in China, India and Russia.
  • In these places, the air is heavily polluted, the drinking water is dangerous and the lakes and rivers are poisoned. The most polluted city is Chernobyl in Ukraine, in 1986 the worst nuclear accident ever occurred.

 

Describe the influence of human activities on the air polution. / Popiš vliv lidských aktivit na znečištění vzduchu./

What causes the air pollution? / Co způsobuje znečištění vzduchu?/

  • Agriculture because the soil is infertile.
  • People also need precious kinds of wood to sell and earn money.
  • But the result is horrible.
  • Animals and plants are threatened /fretend/and many species are disappeaaring and dying.
  • Small forests don´t have  enough capacity to change carbon dioxide to oxygen – the lungs of the Earth are weak.  /karbon dajoxajd, oxydžen/
  • Solution: Alternative sources must be found for food and wood.
  • The accumulation of carbon dioxode causes the greenhouse effect.

 

Explain the mechanism of the greenhouse effect. / Vysvětli mechanismus skleníkového efektu./

  • The greenhouse effect is caused by freons and the accumulation of carbon dioxide, which do not go into the atmosphere and the earth warms up.
  • When there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere we call it ‚greenhouse effect‘.
  • The heat from the Sun comes down to the Earth. /érf/
  • Part of the heat goes through the atmosphere to the Earth and the other part is driven back into space.
  • The carbon dioxide works as the glass in a greenhouse – it allows the heat to come down to Earth but not to escape.
  • The average temperature on the atmosphere is increasing. /inkrýsink/

 

The results are:

  • There is a danger of changing weather and rising sea levels as glaciers melt.
  • The climate change – the ozone hole – higher temperature, the drought – the glaciers melt – the sea level is higher – the floods – animal and plant species dying.
  • But some specialists believe that when there will be more clouds it can help to drive some heat to space and the problem will not be so serious.

 

Why is a hole in the ozone layer so dangerous for the life on the Earth? / ouzoun leja – Proč je díra v ozonové vrstvě tak nebezpečná pro život na Zemi?/

  • There is also ozone in the atmosphere. It protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation.
  • The ozone layer protects the earth from strong sun rays.
  • When the ozone layer is normal, only a small amount of the radiation comes to the Earth.
  • It´s a necessary protection for all life.
  • But human activities are causing the ozone layer to thin – resulting in a hole in the ozone layer.
  • The amount of ultraviolet radiation is too high and leads to sunburn and increased risk of skin cancer.
  • It is dangerous to stay in the sun for a long time.
  • So, the ozone hole in the atmosphere is a great danger.
  • But the ozone layer is destroyed by various gases.
  • It is necessary to forbid using of these gases.

 

  • One of the biggest problems is air pollution.
  • The air is polluted by emissions. The largest producers of emissions are the factories and thermal power stations. They burn brown coal with a high sulfur content.
  • Coal-fired power plants produce during combustion harmful substances in the air.
  • Smog occurs in industrial areas and in larger cities.
  • Private households also pollute the air with their flue gases.
  • The air is also polluted by the exhaust gases of motor vehicles.
  • Heating with coal, tires and waste also causes a lot of air pollution.

 

How can be this problem solved? / Jak může být tento problém řešen?/

  • It is necessary: to save electricity,
  • to seek environmentally friendly energy source,
  • to use environmentally friendly fuels,
  • Build modern heating systems, to install cleaning filters,
  • To produce  cars with catalysts, to refuel unleaded petrol

 

Are there any problems with water on the Earth? / Existují nějaké problémy s vodou na Zemi?/

Why are many rivers so polluted? / Proč je tak mnoho znečištěných řek?/

  • One of the big problems is water pollution. Rivers, lakes, oceans are polluted by sewage. /suidž/
  • Life on the Earth depends on clear water.
  • All organisms need to drink. And there is less and less drinkable water on the Earth.
  • Sometimes there is an oil accident at sea, which causes many birds and fish to die. /dáj/ Oil affects their bodies so they can´t swim or breath. /bríf/

 

Rivers are so polluted because:

  • Wastewater is discharged directly into the rivers.
  • People use chemical fertilizers.
  • Factories drain chemicals into the water.
  • People wash their cars near rivers.

 

How can be this problem solved? /Jak může být tento problém vyřešen?/

To solve the problem with the pollutes water people should:

  • Build more sewage disposal plants. / suidž dyspouzl plents/
  • People should orient themselves to natural fertilizers.
  • And use less chemical fertilizers in agriculture
  • People should save water at home – by showering, not bathing, fixing dripping faucets.
  • To seek water-saving technologies.
  • People should use less cleaning supplies – better is clear water with the vinegar.

 

Why are the rain forests lumbered + cut down? /Proč jsou deštné pralesy káceny?

And what is the result of it? /A jaký je výsledek?/

  • As a result of pollution, forests and also rainforests are dying.
  • This is happening in the Amazon basin in Brasil and South-East Asia.
  • The large rainforests are being lumbered.
  • The reasons are clear – people need more space for agriculture because the soil is infertile.
  • People also need precious kinds of wood to sell and earn money.
  • But the result is horrible.
  • Animals and plants are threatened /fretend/and many species are disappeaaring and dying.
  • Small forests don´t have  enough capacity to change carbon dioxide to oxygen – the lungs of the Earth are weak.  /karbon dajoxajd, oxydžen/
  • Solution: Alternative sources must be found for food and wood.
  • The accumulation of carbon dioxode causes the greenhouse effect.

 

Explain the mechanism of the greenhouse effect. / Vysvětli mechanismus skleníkového efektu./

  • The greenhouse effect is caused by freons and the accumulation of carbon dioxide, which do not go into the atmosphere and the earth warms up.
  • When there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere we call it ‚greenhouse effect‘.
  • The heat from the Sun comes down to the Earth. /érf/
  • Part of the heat goes through the atmosphere to the Earth and the other part is driven back into space.
  • The carbon dioxide works as the glass in a greenhouse – it allows the heat to come down to Earth but not to escape.
  • The average temperature on the atmosphere is increasing. /inkrýsink/ /temprečr/

 

The results are:

  • There is a danger of changing weather and rising sea levels as glaciers melt.
  • The climate change – the ozone hole – higher temperature, the drought – the glaciers melt – the sea level is higher – the floods – animal and plant species dying.
  • But some specialists believe that when there will be more clouds it can help to drive some heat to space and the problem will not be so serious.

 

Why is a hole in the ozone layer so dangerous for the life on the Earth? / ouzoun leja – Proč je díra v ozonové vrstvě tak nebezpečná pro život na Zemi?/

  • There is also ozone in the atmosphere. It protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation.
  • The ozone layer protects the earth from strong sun rays.
  • When the ozone layer is normal, only a small amount of the radiation comes to the Earth.
  • It´s a necessary protection for all life.
  • But human activities are causing the ozone layer to thin – resulting in a hole in the ozone layer.
  • The amount of ultraviolet radiation is too high and leads to sunburn and increased risk of skin cancer.
  • It is dangerous to stay in the sun for a long time.
  • So, the ozone hole in the atmosphere is a great danger.
  • But the ozone layer is destroyed by various gases.
  • It is necessary to forbid using of these gases.

 

Are there any differences in wealth of the people in the world? / Existují nějaké rozdíly v bohatství mezi lidmi na světě?/

  • There is a big difference between rich and poor parts of the society.
  • There are more ways how we can divide it – rich North and poor South, rich West and poor East or there are poor groups in rich states such as Hispanis quarters of American cities.
  • The difference between rich and poor parts increases.
  • Poor African states have no money to take care of their citizens.
  • They need more and more subsidies from the other states.
  • And rich Europeans and Americans live their lives full of consumption and waste. There is a big disparity.
  • Rich states should make an effort to forgive debts of the poor ones and help them develop new technologies to ensure higher effectiveness of their production.

 

What do people do with an increasing amount of the waste? / Co dělají lidé s rostoucím množstvím odpadu?/

  • Another problem is also waste and household waste.
  • We produce more and more waste: waste paper, used textiles, foils, beverage bottles, beverage cans, cans, plastic packaging, kitchen waste…
  • People produce a lot of waste (1 person 300-350 kilos per year).
  • Some substances, such as plastics decompose from hundreds to thousands of years. We have to find new solutions.
  • We have to: sort garbage and waste, reuse secondary raw materials,
  • composte organic waste, build waste incinerators, build modern
  • landfills.
  • The blue container is for paper only: newspapers, catalogs…
  • The yellow bin is for plastic:bags,wrapping foils, plastic bottles …
  • The green and white container is for glass.

 

Describe the problems with producing energy. / Popište problémy s výrobou energie./

  • Modern civilization demands more and more energy for transport, production and so on. Cars need oil or petrol, factories and households need electricity.
  • It´s tradionally made by nuclear or thermal power stations. But the fuel for these stations is limited. People should find new ways to produce electricity with renewable resources like solar radiation or water stream. It´s less effective but we can use it ‚forever‘.

 

Which environmental protection organization do you know? / Které organizace na ochranu životního prostředí znáte?/ What are they dealing with?/Čím se zabývají?/ Would you like to become a member of an environmental protection organization? Why? / Why not? /Chtěl-a byste se stát členem nějaké organizace na ochranu životního prostředí? Proč? Proč ne?/

I know for example:

  • Greenpeace
  • Friends of the Earth
  • Friends of Nature
  • European Environment Agency
  • United Nations Environment Programme

 

They are dealing with:

  • climate change;
  • disasters and conflicts;
  • ecosystem management;
  • environmental governance;
  • harmful substances;
  • resource efficiency.

 

  • I would like to become a member of Greenpeace, because I enjoy their programme.
  • It uses campaigns and a nonviolent and creative confrontation to highlight global environmental issues and promote solutions that are key to a better environment and our future.

 

What do you do for the environment? /Co děláte na ochranu životního prostředí?/ Do you regularly sort out your household waste? Why? / Why not? / Třídíte pravidelně domovní odpad? Proč? / Proč ne?/ What is your attitude to the environment? / Jaký je váš postoj k životnímu prostředí?/

  • I love nature. I often go to the nature. I love walking through the woods and watching the countryside and animals.
  • I believe that each of us can do something for the environment.
  • I also try to do somethig for the environment:
  • For example, we can save water and energy.
  • Buy sprays without freons.
  • Buy products in environmentally friendly packaging.
  • Use less chemical detergent, cleaning agents.
  • Not so often driving by car, but more public transport / trains, buses, trams / use or more often go on foot or by bike.
  • Refuel unleaded petrol.
  • Driving cars with catalyst.
  • We should behave considerate in nature – do not pick flowers, Cultivate plants and trees, put trees and shrubs – they produce oxygen.
  • And of course,  don´t drop the litter in the streets, in the town and in the nature.
  • Recycle – plastic bottles, paper, glass… /rysajkl/






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