Australia and New Zealand – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (5)

 

  Otázka: Australia and New Zealand

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Jirka Adam

 

 

 

 

Australia

  • Australia is both: the world’s largest island and the smallest continent
  • Located south of Asia between the Indian and Pacific oceans
  • Is made up of six states and two territories
  • Population: 23,3 million inhabitants
  • Area: 7 750 000 km 2

 

History

  • Aboriginal culture was mostly hunter-gatherer and about 250 languages were spoken in Australia at the time

– Native Australians – The aborigines in Australia for 40,000 years, now represent only 1% of population

  • 1700 – first Europeans to discover
  • 1770 – James Cook claimed Australia for Britain – originally a prison colony
  • 1901 – Australia became an independent nation
  • 1927 – Canberra was declared the federal capital (Sydney vs. Melbourne)

 

Geography

Mountains

  • Range: Australian Cordilleras, Australian Alps, Mac Donnell’s
  • Kosciusko – 2, 225 m
  • Townsend – 2, 209 m
  • Twynam – 2, 195 m

 

Lakes, rivers and deserts

  • Lakes: Lake Eyre, Lake Torrens, Mackay’s Lake, Lake Mackenzie, Dove Lake, Lake Buchanan
  • Rivers: Murray, Darling, Victoria, Lachlan, Snowy
  • Deserts: Great Sandy Desert, Desert of Simpsons, Great Victoria desert, Gibson‘s desert, Little Sandy

 

Flora and Fauna

– more than 80% of the country ’s flora and fauna is unique for Australia

Flora

  • native trees are eucalypts and wattle (acatia)

Fauna

  • kangaroo (45 mil.), Koala, Platypusys, Kookaburras, wombats, dingoes, Tasmanian devil

 

Government and politics

– 6 federal states

  • Queensland – Brisbane, New South Wales – Sydney, Victoria – Melbourne, Tasmania – Hobart (Bass strait),

South Australia –Adelaide, West Australia – Perth

– 3 territories

  • Northern Territory – Darwin
  • Australian Capital Territory – Canberra
  • Jervis Bay Territory – New South Wales

 

  • Capital: Canberra
  • Official title: The Commonwealth of Australia
  • Democratic, federal system
  • Head of the state is Queen Elizabeth II (until she will reign), then Governor-General, PM – Tony Abbott
  • Canberra is the seat of the Federal parliament

– Senate

– House of Representatives

  • member of: UN, OECD and Commonwealth
  • anthem: Advanced Australian Fair

 

Population

  • Density: 2, 75/km 2
  • 85% people live in urban areas – mainly along south-east coast
  • deserts and the tropical northern part are almost uninhabited (the outback)
  • 96% are British origin, 3% are the other Europeans, 1% aborigines

 

Economy

  • Currency: Australian dollar
  • GDP: 67 470 USD
  • Industries: iron, steel, textiles, electronics, chemicals, cars
  • other agriculture: barley, oats, hay, sugar, wine
  • Natural riches: coal, copper, iron, silver, tin
  • Main trading partners: Japan, USA, UK, New Zealand
  • Most important industrial city is Perth

 

Places of interests

  • Ayers Rocks – largest monolith on earth
  • Great barrier reef – largest on earth (east- coast)
  • Wave rock – Perth (Albany)

 

National Symbols
  • Plant: silver fern
  • Bird: Kiwi
  • National anthem: “God Defend New Zealand”
  • Sport: rugby
  • “Dance”: Haka

 

New Zealand

  • island country in south-western Pacific Ocean
  • Tasman sea between Australia and NZ
  • Population: 4.53 million
  • Area: 268, 021 km2

 

History

  • 13th century – Polynesians settle -> Māori
  • 1642 – NZ “discovered” by Abel Tasman
  • February 6th, 1840 – Treaty of Waitangi (between the British Crown and the Māori)

-> British Colony (officially a country)

  • 1853 – NZ became an independent colony

 

Geography, Volcanology

  • Part of Zealandia (Tasmantis)
  • NZ lies between two continental plates (Australian and Pacific) -> the Southern Alps
  • 29 regions – very diverse
  • Two main landmasses + numerous islands:
  • the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) – volcanic activity and earthquakes – Taupo Volcanic Zone
    • the South Island (Te Waipounamu) – no active volcanoes
  • North and South Islands separated by the Cook Strait – 22 km at its narrowest point
Mountains
  • Southern Alps – South Island’s Main Divide, peaks over 3000m

– highest peak: Mt. Cook (Aoraki) – 3,754 m

  • Fiordland – mountain region (SW South Island)

several fiords (also “sounds”):

– Milford Sound – most famous

Doubtful Sound – larger

– 200 rainy days/year

  • North Island – less mountainous – volcanic activity

– Lowest point: Taieri Plains (-2 meters)

 

Climate – mild/temperate oceanic

– conditions vary across the islands

– extremely wet – South Island’s West Coast

subtropical – northern part North Island

Rivers
  • Waikato River (NI) – 425 km
  • Clutha River/Matau River (SI) – 322 km
  • Taieri River (SI) – 288 km

 

Politics

Lakes:

Taupo – 616 km2

Te Anau – 344 km2

Wakatipu – 291 km2

  • Capital: Wellington (largest city: Auckland)
  • Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
  • Head of state (monarch): Elizabeth II – Queen of New Zealand
  • Governor-General: Jerry Mateparae
  • Head of government (Prime minister): John Key
  • Parliament:
    • NZ House of Representatives (121)
    • Queen of New Zealand

 

Economy

  • GDP: $41,555.75 (2013)
  • Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD) – Kiwi dollar

– 1 NZD = 17.2 KČ – Highly dependent on international trade (prone to global crisis and international prices)

  • Export: agriculture, horticulture, fishing, forestry, mining
  • Major partners: Australia, USA, Japan, China, UK

 

Religion
  • Christian: 55.6%
  • Atheists: 34.7%
  • Other religions: 9.7%

 

Languages

  • English – 95.9%
  • Māori – 4.2%
  • New Zealand Sign Language – 0.6%

 

Population

  • Population density: 16.5 inh./km2
  • 74% European
  • 15% Māori (natives)
  • Other: – Asian – approx. 8%
Famous New Zealanders
  • Peter Jackson – director
  • Russell Crowe – actor
  • Lorde – singer

 

– Pacific peoples

– Middle Eastern

  • Driving on the left side of the road

 

Māori Culture (Māoritanga) – strongly influenced by modern culture

  • fluent in English, though Māori is highly supported by the NZ government (schools, organizations, funding..)
  • Marae – tribal meeting grounds (Northland, Auckland, Rotorua, Canterbury)
  • Moko – traditional tattoos
  • Hongi – greeting (by noses)

 

Place of interests

 

Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit

  • Rise in NZ’s popularity thanks to Peter Jackson’s LOTR and Hobbit
  • “Hobbiton” near Matamata – open to visitors and tours

– Hobbit Hotel in Hobbiton

Auckland (City of Sails)
  • NZ’s largest and most populous city
  • 5 mil. inhabitants – 31% of NZ’s population
  • world’s largest Polynesian population
  • Two separate harbours: Tasman, Pacific
  • NZ’s center of trade, education, business

 

Wellington (The Windy City)

– the world’s southernmost capital city

– 400,000 inhabitants (2nd most populous)

– SW tip of North Island

– NZ’s center of business and administration






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