Otázka: History of English language – world Englishes
World Englishes are varieties of English spoken in our world. Especially varieties that have developed in nations colonised by United Kingdom or influenced by the United States. Nowadays there are about 75 territories, where English is spoken as a first language or as an unofficial or institutionalised second language.
The most influential model of the spread of English is Braj Kachru’s model of World Englishes. Basically there are free circles: The inner, outer and expanding circle.
The Inner Circle refers to English as it was originally spread across the world. Is the English from the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Anglophone Canada and South Africa, and some of Caribbean territories. English is the native language of most people in there. The total number of English speakers in the inner circle is about 380 million.
The Outer Circle of English was produced by the colonization by Great Britain in Asia and Africa. In these regions, English is not the native tongue, but it is still the only way to communicate between some ethnic groups. This circle includes India, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Malaysia, Tanzania, Kenya, non-Anglophone South Africa, the Philippines and others. The total number of English speakers in the outer circle is between 150 million to 300 million.
And the last circle is the expanding circle: here belong places, where English has nothing to do with the native language. It is only used as a medium of international communication. To this circle belongs the rest of the world. The range of people here is about 100 million to 1 billion.
This is not the only one division of English, there are many others, such as Steven´s world map of English, Schneider´s dynamic model of postcolonial Englishes or Modiano´s model of English.