History of the USA – maturitní otázka (2)

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angličtina

 

  Otázka: History of the USA

  Jazyk: Angličtina

  Přidal(a): Annie

 

 

First settlers: Indians

Around 1000 AD: Vikings reached Newfoundland (Leif Erikson)

 

Christopher Columbus

  • Italian sailoe in service of Spain
  • He was supposed to find a way to India
  • 1492: Columbus landed at the coast of North America but he believed it was India
  • The local people were called Indians
  • Three ships: Niña, Pinta and San Marina

 

Amerigo Vespucci

  • Italian sailor who explored the coast of South America (Brazil)
  • The new continent was named after him

 

First English colony (1607)

  • The first English colony was called Virginia (after Elizabeth I, the Virgin Queen,)
  • Jamestown

 

Pilgrim Fathers

  • 1620: a group of English Puritans in ship Mayflower landed on the north-east coast
  • They escaped from England because of religious persecution
  • Founded a colony called Plymouth
  • During the first winter half of them died
  • 1621: in November they celebrated good harvest, celebration was called Thanksgiving
  • Thanksgiving Day (4th Thursday in November)

 

Boston Tea Party (1773)

  • Colonies were developing quickly and became economically strong
  • British government imposed duties on imported goods (sugar, coffee, tea,)
  • Colonists were angry with the taxis
  • They couldn’t defend themselves because they had no representatives in the British parliament
  • A group of Massachusetts colonists, dressed as Indians, threw a tea from British ship to the sea
  • The beginning of the War of Independence

 

War of Independence (1775–1783)

  • Conflict between Britain and the American colonists
  • 1775: 2nd Continental Congress in Philadelphia
  • Colonists set up the army, their leader was George Washington (with France)
  • July 4th, 1776: Declaration of Independence (written by Thomas Jefferson) was signed
  • Colonists declared themselves independent
  • United States of America was established
  • 1781: war ended when Washington with help of France defeated Britain at Yorktown
  • Loyalist (supported Britain)
  • Patriots / Revolutionaries (supported colonists)
    • Conservatives (Washington)
    • Progressives (Jefferson)
  • 1783: Britain recognized the United States

 

The Constitution

  • 1788: the American Constitution was adopted
  • 1789: George Washington was elected the first president of the USA

 

19th Century

  • Turning point in the flow of migration – more than a million new settlers from Europe (majority from England, Scotland, Ireland and Germany)

 

Civil War (1861–1865)

  • In the North the industry was developing rapidly
  • In the agricultural South there was a slave system
  • The first Negroes came to America and became slaves in the south colonies
  • Slaves worked on plantains or served in a house
  • Disagreement on the slavery question led to Civil War
  • Lasted from 1861 to 1865, resulting in a victory for the North
  • 1863: President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation (set the slaves free)

 

Reconstruction period after the Civil War

  • USA were becoming economically stronger and became the world’s leading industrial power
  • The black people were given the right to vote and many were elected to the Congress
  • 1886: Ku-Klux-Klan was founded
    • Secret organization as an instrument of terror against the black people

 

World War I (1914–1918)

  • Allies (Britain, France, Russia) against the Central Powers (Germany, Austria)
  • The USA was helping and supporting Allies but didn’t want to enter the war
  • 1917: the USA entered the war and helped Britain and France
  • 1918: a peace was negotiated and the Versailles Treaty ended the war the year after

 

The Roaring Twenties

  • Period of economic prosperity after WWI

 

Wall Street crash

  • October 24th 1929: Wall street crash (known as Black Thursday)
    • Crash of the New York important stock market
  • Years of prosperity ended and Great Depression started
    • Caused by overproduction of goods
    • Unemployment and poverty
    • Lasted till the beginning of WW II
    • Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced series of programs called New Deal (economic reforms)

 

World War II (1939–1945)

  • 1939: War started in September when Poland was attacked by Germany
  • 7th December 1941: Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour (the main base of American navy)
  • Day after this attack the USA entered the war
  • USA defeated the Japanese in The Battle of Midway
  • 6th June 1944: Allies invaded Normandy (operation OVERLOD, General Eisenhower)
    • The defeat of Hitler and victory over Japan
  • August 1945: President Truman ordered to drop of atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima
  • After that Japan surrendered and the war officially ended
  • 1945: The United Nations Organization (the UNO) was founded

 

Post-war period

  • In 1945 the USA was the strongest country in the world
    • It’s money and atomic bombs became dangerous for Soviet Union

 

The Cold War

  • Tension between the democratic West (USA) and communistic East (Soviet Union)
  • 1449: the birth of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • The Korean War (1950–1953)
  • The Vietnam War (1965–1973)
  • Testing new nuclear weapons
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  • The space race
  • Economic expansion of the US (scientific, medical, and technological achievements)
  • Cold war ended in 1989 with the collapse of communism

 

21st Century

  • Fighting the terrorism
    • 11th September 2001: radical Islamite terrorist attacked New York and the Pentagon
    • World Trade Centre destruction
  • Firs African-American President of the USA: Barack Obama (2009–2017)


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