Otázka: School systems (USA, GB, CR)
Přidal(a): Sabina Janáková
School system in the Czech Republic
In the CR, school attendance is compulsory from the age of 6 up to 15 (or 16).The school year starts on 1st September and ends on 30th June of the following year. The school year is divided into two terms.One lesson lasts 45 minutes and there are small breaks between lessons. Pupils are evaluated by marks from one to five It is free of charge and all children have the same possibilities for their future education. This system includes 4 grades:
a) Pre – school education
In our country there are nursery schools for children from the age of 1 to 3 years. From the age of 3 to 6 children attend kindergarten. This pre-school education is not compulsory.
b) Primary education
From the age of 6 to 15 (or 16) children attend basic schools. There are 2 degrees there. The first degree is from the first to the fifth class. Children learn the 3 R’s there: Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic. Second degree is from the 6th to the 9th class. They learn Czech language and literature, foreign language, Maths, Chemistry, Biology, Physics, History, Geography, Civics, P. E., Music and Art. Most children attend state schools, but there are also private and church schools. Education at state schools is free of charge. Private and church schools charge fees. Pupils at the age 11 can go to grammar school or high school, but they must pass an entrance examination.
c) Secondary education
Boys and girls over the age 15 (or) 16 attend secondary schools such as Grammar school, Special School and Apprentice centres. At secondary school students are taught most of those subject as at basic school but they are expanded in their content. As for special subjects, they learn economics, typing, accounting, computers, and various kinds of laboratory work. Students finish their studies with the school-leaving examination. After the graduates have passed School-Leaving exam, they receive the School-Leaving Certificate and the can apply for study at universities and colleges.
d) Tertiary education
Tertiary education refers to universities and Technical Universities.Tertiary education lasts from four to six years. Students are accepted after they have passed an entrance examination. Successful students from secondary schools can enter any university. Our oldest university is Charles University in Prague (founded by Charles IV. in 1348), other schools are Masaryk University in Brno, Palacký University in Olomouc and Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem. Undergraduates can study for example economics, architecture, law, journalism, foreign languages, medicine, science, music, art… Education at state schools up to eighteen is free of charge but university students are expected to pay for their accommodation and books which is a quite big amount of money.
School system in Great Britain
School is compulsory for children between the age of 5 to 16. Primary schools are for ages between 5 – 11 and Secondary schools are for ages over 11. Children under the age of five go to kindergarten. In Britain, 93% of pupils go to state schools. At the age of 16 about two thirds (2/3) of these pupils leave school and get jobs or apprenticeships. This system of education is free of charge.
There are also fee-paying Independent schools for pupils from 11 to 19 years known like a Public schools. Many of them are boarding schools there children live during the school term. There are schools for girls and boys but majority of the Public Secondary Schools are single-sex schools. ETON, HARROW, RUGBY – the most famous Public schools.
Some children take the Certificate of Secondary Education (C. S. E.) which means the satisfactory completion of school at the age of 16. More ambitious children take the examinations for the General Certificate of Secondary Education at ordinary level (GCSE – O level) or advanced level (GCSE – A level) at the age of 18. The GCSE – A level is the basic qualification to enter university. There are more than 40 universities in Great Britain. University courses usually last from 3 to 4 years (5-6 years in medicine, dentistry,veterinary sciences.) (OXFORD, CAMBRIDGE)
pozn. tady Public schools – soukromé, v USA veřejné !
School system in the USA
In the USA there is not a national system of education. Each of the 50 states has its own laws regulating education. Attendance is compulsory from the 6 to 16. Children begin school at the age of 5 or 6 and continue until the age of 18. The educational system is called system “6-3-3 Plan”: six years elementary school from the age of six, three years Junior High school, from twelve to fifteen, and three years Senior High school, from fifteen to eighteen.
Most children attend public schools, but there are also private and church schools. Education at public schools is free of charge while private schools charge schools fees. At the age of 6 children start to attend elementary schools and they stay there until 11, after 11 they go to secondary school.
Secondary education is provided by Middle Schools from 11 to 14 years or by High Schools, which are divided into Junior High (from 12 to 15) and High school ( from 15 to 18). The goal of secondary school is to get a high school diploma. After passing an examination the student is awarded the General Education Diploma Marks in most US schools are A, B, C, D, and F with an A being excellent and an F being failure.
Universities and colleges usually last 4 years. Students must pass entrance examination in subjects which the university is specialized. The oldest and most respected universities in the USA are all private (HARVARD, YALE, PRINCETON)