Otázka: The United Kingdom…
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The UK is situated to the north-west part of European continent, between the Atlantic ocean and the North see. It is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The total land area is 243,600km2
It lies in the northeast of the island of Ireland. The capital and the largest city is Belfast. In Northern Ireland, sport is popular and important in the lives of many people.
It is a country on the western side of Great Britain. It is a principality, ruled by a prince. Traditionally, the title of the Prince of Wales is given to the oldest son of the reigning English monarch. The capital of Wales is Cardiff. The national game of Wales is rugby
Scotland is a country in the north of Great Britain, famous for its freshwater lochs (lakes). The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, which known for the Edinburgh Festival, a collection of festivals held over about four weeks from early August.
England makes up the southern part of Great Britain. Nearly 84% of the population of the UK lives in England. There is the oldest university in the
English-speaking world in Oxford. The capital city of the United Kingdom is London.
UK has a mild climate due to the warm Gulf Stream. Rain is common throughout the year
The landscape of England is mostly rolling hillsides. The main mountain regions are the Cornish Heights and the Pennines. The highest mountains are Ben Nevis in Scotland (1343 m high), Snowdon in North Wales (1085 m high ) and Scafell Pike in England (978 m high).
The longest rivers are the Severn and the Thames. The best – known lakes are those in the Lake District and in Scotland and there are famous lake Loch Ness.
The population of the UK is more than 60 million, taking into account emigration and immigration. In Britain, we can find the following ethnic groups: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh. The official language is English . It has many dialects throughout the country. British English differs from American English in some ways, such as pronunciation, spelling or vocabulary.
The political system
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The head of the state is the Queen Elizabeth II. Formally she’s a head of the executive and judiciary, commander-in-chief of all the armed forces, and temporal governor of the Church of England.
The Parliament includes sovereign, the House of Lords (Upper House)-aristocrats and House of Commons (Lower House)- members are elected for five-year terms.
is in hands of the prime ministr-David Cameron and his Cabinet (group of ministers)
The United Kingdom has three legal systems : English law, Northern Ireland law and Scots law
Great Britain was first settled by the Celts about 3000 years ago. Than there were Romans – they started building Hadrian’s Wall. In 1485, a dynasty, the Tudors, gained the throne. In 1536, Wales was
joined to England by the Act of Union. Under Queen Elizabeth I (second half of 16. century) Britain became a major sea power. Large parts of Africa and Asia were added to the empire during the reign of Queen Victoria. Scotland was joined to England in 1707, Northern Ireland
in 1801. The UK is a founding member of NATO (North
Atlantic Treaty Organisation). Since 1973 the UK has been a member
of the European Union.
The main industries are steel, metals, vehicles, shipbuilding, shipping, banking, insurance, textiles, chemicals, electronics, aircraft, machinery, and distilling. The main agricultural products are corn, sugar beet, fruit, and vegetables. Britain is rich in coal, tin, oil, gas, chalk and lead.