USA – maturitní otázka z angličtiny (2)

 

Otázka: USA

Jazyk: Angličtina

Přidal(a): Myška

 

 

 

 

The US- federation of 50 states and Washington D.C. (District of Columbia) –the national capital of the US and the seat of the federal government and president, ab. 630 000 people-70% black, The Potomac River

 

The Capitol building-for the Senate + the Houses of Representatives

Washington Monument-white marble obelisk W-named after the 1st president George Washington

Lincoln Memorial-inspired by Greek architect, 20 ft marble statue of a seated Abraham Lincoln(abolished slavery)

Arlington National Cemetery-200 000 esp. Military graves, simple graves of president John F. Kennedy + his brother Robert

Pentagon-pentagonal (5 stars) building-Ministry of Defence

White House-the president´s residence

Museums, universities,theatres…

 

New York – the biggest city in US,metropolitan area is 18 mil.,centre-7mil. people(80 lang.spoken in NY)

-commercial, business, financial(stock market),cultural centre

-comprises ab. 50 islands,5 boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, Staten Island, Queens

-called The Big Apple, The city that never sleeps

History:1642-called New Amsterdam, The Dutch bought the island from the Indians for the goods worth 25 dollars. 1664-became the English colony, renamed New York

Manhattan-plans of streets(E-W) + avenues(N-S), only oldest Brodway(theatres) and Wall Street-wall against Indians-now financial centre, The Stock Exchange, famous 5th Avenue-shopping centre, Central park, Brooklyn Bridge Beginning of 20th-famous skyscrapers-the Empire State building(1931 381m) –at the corner of 5th Avenue, Chrysler building(1930 319m), Twins-World Trade Centre-the highest in NY were destroyed by the terrorist attack on 11 Sept 2001-thousands of people died.

Transport: J.F.Kennedy Airport,subway(underground)-largerst in the world

Statue of Liberty-Liberty Island, given by The French

Madison Square Garden Centre-sport + culture

Carnegie Hall-concert

Times square– movie,theatres,concert halls

Rockefeller Centre-complex of buildings

Columbia University-oldest+largest in US

Guggenheim Museum

Flushing Meadows-tennis championship, NY Rangers-ice hockey

 

Places of Interest:

 

WEST:

Los Angeles-2nd largest, the city of Angeles, palm trees, beaches, movie industry, Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Disneyland

San Francisco(Calif)-hilly city, Golden Gate Bridge

Las Vegas-east-south of Nevada-rodeo,casinos,nearby Death Valley-300years-not raining

MtRushmore-middle No, South Dakota, colossal portraits of 4 presidents carved in rock

Grand Canyon

Yellowstone-national Park the largest+oldest in US-Wyoming, Idaho,Montana

Yosemite park

Monument Valley(Ariz.)- red stone chimneys, a lot of films were made there

 

SOUTH:

Houston(sou,Texas)-oil centre

Dallas-S west, finan.+comerc. Centre, pres.JFK was assassinated here in 1963

Miami-Florida-holidays area, esp. For pensioners, NASA-Kennedy Space Centre´s Spaceport at Cape Canaveral, space shuttles are launched, Miami-recreation centre

New Orleans-the cradle of jazz, Major seaport on the Mississippi river(2005-flooded by hurricane Catherine)

 

NORTH+EAST

Chicago-3rd largest, industrial, Sears Towers-highest skyscraper in world the Sears Tower

Detroit-cars

Boston-(Nest,Mass)-port, cradle of liberty-Boston Tea Party-Am. Revolution 1775

Princeton-university, New Jersey-like NY

Philadelphia-under NY-Declaration of Independence+ Constitution were signed

 

Language: English(also a lot of-Spanish)

Religious freedom: esp. Protestants

Wide variety of geographical regions: mountains: west. California-Sierra Nevada+Mt.Whitney-4,418m, Rocky Mountains, famous Grand Canyon , East-Appalachians(highest peak is McKinley 6,194m in Alaska

Rivers: The Mississippi, The Missouri, The Hudson, The Colorado, Rio Grande, Yukon

Lakes: The Great Lakes-Lake Superior, L.Michigan, L.Huron, L.Erie, L.Ontario, Niagara Falls

Climate: vast climatic differences-from tropical-Hawaii, California,Florida, to more severe with cold winters-Midwest, northeast,artic-Alaska

 

HISTORY:

35 000 years-from Siberia to the North America

Vikings 1 000 AD

1492-Christopher Columbus, but named after Amerigo Vespucci

1620-first English settlement-Pilgrims were Puritans-Henry VIII

1621-good harvest-origin of Thanksgiving day

17th-18th-Europeans immigration

1750-were 13 British colonies

from 1690- a system of triangular trade

1773- Boston Tea Party x British taxes

4th July 1776– Declaration of Independence

George Washington- 1st president, new constitution

Difference between North(industrial) and South(slaves,agricult) led to:

CIVIL WAR-1861-65(slavery  abolished) president Abraham Lincoln

1960s-Martin Luther King Jr movement against segregation

20th c.-the US grew a world power, military strength, WW2-Pearl Harbour,1945 atomic bomb Hiroshima, Nagasaki, cold war, JF Kennedy, first man on the Moon Neil Armstrong, Vietnam war(1961-73),

1974- Watergate-Richard Nixon

1991-Gulf War(George Bush), Iraq war, Afganistan

Bill Clinton-democrat (1992-2000)

Geoge Bush.republican (2001-2008)

1st non-white president Barrack Obama (2009)

 

POLITICAL SYSTEM

System of federal government of US-the Constitution

Federal government – Congress : the Senate        The House of Representatives

Political parties– democratic + republican

President-election-White House in Washington,D.C – District of Columbia – national capital, seat of federal goverment

14 cabinet departments: D. of State, Treasury, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commenrce, Labour, Health, Education, housing, Energy….

 

CIA-central inteligence agency

 

FLAG– smaller part of blue oblong with 50 white stars(50 Amer. States) + larger oblong with 6 white + 7 red stripes(original 13 states used to be the British colonies)






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